The arteries of the upper limb supply the bones and soft tissues of the pectoral girdle, the lateral part of the thoracic wall, as well as all organs and tissues of the free part of the upper limb with blood.
In this video, we will consider the anatomy of the brachial artery (arteria brachialis) and its branches, as well as the area of blood supply.
But first, we will talk about the axillary artery (arteria axillaris), which arises at the level of the external border of the first rib, passes down the medial side of the pectoral joint and humerus next to the vein of the same name, and is surrounded by the trunks of the brachial plexus.
At the level of the inferior border of the pectoralis major muscle, it passes into the brachial artery (arteria brachialis).
Then the artery is located in the groove passing medial to the biceps brachii muscle, on the anterior surface of the brachialis muscle.
In the cubital fossa, at the level of the neck of the radius, the brachial artery divides into its final branches: the radial (a. ulnaris) and ulnar (a. radialis) arteries.
It supplies the biceps brachii muscle, triceps brachii muscle, coracobrachialis muscle, skin, humerus, and elbow joint with blood.
The brachial artery has 6 branches along its length, not counting the terminal ones.
The largest branch is the profunda brachii artery (arteria profunda brachii).
It arises slightly distal to the edge of the teres major muscle. In the superior third of the arm, it goes together with the radial nerve in the brachiomuscular canal between the posterior surface of the humerus and the triceps brachii muscle, where it divides into 2 branches:
The median collateral artery (arteria collateralis media) is the larger of the two branches and arises behind the humerus, ending at the elbow level.
Five small arteries called fasciocutaneous perforating branches that pass through the fascia between the muscles and supply the skin with blood arise from it.
The radial collateral branch (ramus radialis collateralis) passes along with the radial nerve and crosses the lateral intermuscular septum, descending anteriorly to the lateral epicondyle between the brachial and brachioradialis muscles.
Then it communicates with the radial recurrent artery.
It supplies the radial nerve, brachioradialis, and brachiali uscles, as well as the skin with blood.
The humeral nutrient artery (arteria nutricia) arises into the nutrient canal behind the deltoid tuberosity. It supplies the humerus with blood
The deltoid branch (ramus deltoideus) supplies the muscle of the same name and the brachialis muscle with blood
The median ulnar collateral artery (arteria collateralis ulnaris medius) passes into the anterior lateral ulnar groove, where it anastomoses with the recurrent radial artery.
The superior ulnar collateral artery (arteria collateralis ulnaris superior) arises just below the deep artery of the arm and goes along with the ulnar nerve in the medial posterior ulnar groove, where it anastomoses with the posterior branch of the ulnar recurrent artery.
The inferior ulnar collateral artery (arteria collateralis ulnaris inferior) arises from the brachial artery above the medial epicondyle of the humerus, follows the anterior surface of the brachial muscle in the medial direction and anastomoses with the anterior branch of the ulnar recurrent artery.
Muscle branches (rami musculares) supply the brachial muscles with blood. These are multiple, small, short, and usually not considered independent branches.
The brachial artery and its branches
- Brachial artery
- a. brachialis
- Profunda brachii artery
- a. profunda brcachii
- Median collateral artery
- a. col lateralis media
- Radial collateral branch
- r. radialis col lateralis
- Humeral nutrient artery
- a. nutricia
- Deltoid branch
- r. deltoideus
- Median ulnar collateral artery
- a. col lateralis ulnaris medius
- Superior ulnar collateralartery
- a. col lateralis ulnaris superior
- Inferior ulnar collateralartery
- a. col lateralis ulnaris inferior
- Muscular branches
- rr. musculares