Deep femoral artery

The external carotid artery and its branchesAnatomical features of the external carotid artery, its branches, blood supply areas and anastomoses
~ 4 min

The arteries of the lower limbs serve as blood conduits to the tissues of the lower limbs. They are larger relative to the arteries of the upper limbs.

In this video, we will consider the deep femoral artery system (a. profunda femoris), which is the largest of the branches of the femoral artery (a. femoralis).

Deep femoral artery system (a. profunda femoris)
Deep femoral artery system (a. profunda femoris)
Deep femoral artery system (a. profunda femoris)
Deep femoral artery system (a. profunda femoris)
Deep femoral artery system (a. profunda femoris)
Deep femoral artery system (a. profunda femoris)
Femoral artery (a. femoralis)
Femoral artery (a. femoralis)
Femoral artery (a. femoralis)
Femoral artery (a. femoralis)

The deep femoral artery (a. profunda femoris) arises slightly below the inguinal ligament. It passes laterally between the adductor and vastus medialis muscles on the posterior side of the thigh.

Deep femoral artery (a. profunda femoris)
Deep femoral artery (a. profunda femoris)
Deep femoral artery (a. profunda femoris)
Deep femoral artery (a. profunda femoris)
Deep femoral artery (a. profunda femoris)
Deep femoral artery (a. profunda femoris)

It supplies the extensors and flexors of the thigh, the adductor muscles of the thigh, the skin of the medial region of the thigh, and the proximal femur with blood.

It anastomoses with the muscular branches of the popliteal artery.

Deep femoral artery (a. profunda femoris)
Deep femoral artery (a. profunda femoris)

The deep femoral artery has 3 branches:

  1. The medial circumflex femoral artery (a. circumflexa femoris medialis)

    Medial circumflex femoral artery (a. circumflexa femoris medialis)
    Medial circumflex femoral artery (a. circumflexa femoris medialis)
  2. The lateral circumflex femoral artery (a. circumflexa femoris lateralis)

    Lateral circumflex femoral artery (a. circumflexa femoris lateralis)
    Lateral circumflex femoral artery (a. circumflexa femoris lateralis)
  3. Perforating arteries (aa. perforantes)

Perforating arteries (aa. perforantes)
Perforating arteries (aa. perforantes)
Perforating arteries (aa. perforantes)
Perforating arteries (aa. perforantes)

Let’s consider each of them in greater detail.

The medial circumflex femoral artery (a. circumflexa femoris medialis) follows in the medial direction, circumflexes the neck of the femur and gives rise to 3 branches:

Medial circumflex femoral artery (a. circumflexa femoris medialis)
Medial circumflex femoral artery (a. circumflexa femoris medialis)
  • The ascending branch (r. ascendens)

    Ascending branch (r. ascendens)
    Ascending branch (r. ascendens)
  • The deep branch (r. profundus)

    Deep branch (r. profundus)
    Deep branch (r. profundus)

    These branches supply the iliolumbar, pectinate, obturator externus, piriformis and quadrate muscles of the thigh with blood.

    The acetabular branch (r. acetabularis) goes to the hip joint and supplies it with blood.

    Acetabular branch (r. acetabularis)
    Acetabular branch (r. acetabularis)

    It anastomoses with the branches of the obturator artery, the lateral circumflex femoral artery, and the first perforating artery (from the deep artery of the thigh).

    Let’s move on to the 2nd branch of the deep femoral artery.

    The lateral circumflex femoral artery (a. circumflexa femoris lateralis) goes laterally and gives off three branches:

    Lateral circumflex femoral artery (a. circumflexa femoris lateralis)
    Lateral circumflex femoral artery (a. circumflexa femoris lateralis)
  • The ascending branch (r. ascendens) – supplies the gluteus maximus muscle and the tensor of the fascia lata, and also anastomoses with the branches of the gluteal arteries;

    Ascending branch (r. ascendens)
    Ascending branch (r. ascendens)
    Ascending branch (r. ascendens)
    Ascending branch (r. ascendens)
  • The descending branch (r. descendens)

    Descending branch (r. descendens)
    Descending branch (r. descendens)
    Descending branch (r. descendens)
    Descending branch (r. descendens)
  • The transverse branch (r. transversus)

Transverse branch (r. transversus)
Transverse branch (r. transversus)

The last two branches supply the sartorius and quadriceps muscles of the thigh with blood. Between the thigh muscles, the descending branch follows to the knee joint, anastomosing with the branches of the popliteal artery.

In conclusion, let’s consider a number of branches, which we classified as one, but in fact it is a number of vessels of the same name.

Perforating arteries (aa. perforantes) are not one artery, but a number of branches that we will consider together.

The first, second and third, pierce the lateral intermuscular septum of the thigh and are directed to its posterior side, where the biceps, semitendinous and semimembranous muscles, their fascia and skin are supplied with blood.

The first perforating artery passes to the posterior thigh muscles below the pectinate muscle, the second passes below the adductor brevis muscle, and the third passes below the adductor longus muscle.

They supply blood to the muscles of the posterior side of the thigh and anastomose with the branches of the popliteal artery.

Perforating arteries (aa. perforantes)
Perforating arteries (aa. perforantes)
Perforating arteries (aa. perforantes)
Perforating arteries (aa. perforantes)
Dictionary

Deep femoral arteryand its branches

Deep femoral artery
a. profunda femoris
Medial circumflex femoral artery
a. circumflexa femoris medialis
Ascending and deep ranches
r. ascendens et r. profundus
Acetabular branch
r. acetabularis
Lateral circumflex femoral artery
a. circumflexa femoris lateralis
Ascending branch
r. ascendens
Descending and transverse branches
r. descendens et transversus
Perforating arteries
aa. perforantes
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