Femoral artery

The femoral artery and its branchesAnatomical features of the femoral artery, its branches, as well as the area of blood supply and anastomoses
~ 4 min

The arteries of the lower limbs serve as blood conduits to the tissues of the lower limbs. They are larger relative to the arteries of the upper limbs.

In this video, we will consider the femoral artery (a. femoralis) system. It is a continuation of the external iliac artery (arteria iliaca communis).

Femoral artery (a. femoralis)
Femoral artery (a. femoralis)
Femoral artery (a. femoralis)
Femoral artery (a. femoralis)
External iliac artery (arteria iliaca communis)
External iliac artery (arteria iliaca communis)

It arises at the level of the inguinal ligament, follows down through the vascular space laterally of the vein of the same name, along the Iliopectineal groove in the femoral triangle, where it is covered only by fascia and skin.

Femoral artery (a. femoralis)
Femoral artery (a. femoralis)
Femoral artery (a. femoralis)
Femoral artery (a. femoralis)

This is the spot where pulsation of the femoral artery is easily palpable. It passes in the groove between the vastus medialis muscle lying laterally, the adductor magnus and adductor longus muscles. Then it goes into the adductor canal formed by these muscles and their tendons, descends into the popliteal fossa, where it continues into the artery of the same name (a. poplitea).

Popliteal artery (a. poplitea)
Popliteal artery (a. poplitea)

It supplies the femur, the skin and muscles of the thigh, the skin of the anterior abdominal wall, external genitalia, hip joint, and knee joint with blood.

The femoral artery gives off five branches in the femoral triangle and one in the adductor canal, a total of six branches:

  1. The superficial epigastric artery (a. epigastrica superficialis)

    Superficial epigastric artery (a. epigastrica superficialis)
    Superficial epigastric artery (a. epigastrica superficialis)
    Superficial epigastric artery (a. epigastrica superficialis
    Superficial epigastric artery (a. epigastrica superficialis
  2. The superficial circumflex iliac artery (a. circumflexa iliaca superficialis)

    Superficial circumflex iliac artery (a. circumflexa iliaca superficialis)
    Superficial circumflex iliac artery (a. circumflexa iliaca superficialis)
    Superficial circumflex iliac artery (a. circumflexa iliaca superficialis)
    Superficial circumflex iliac artery (a. circumflexa iliaca superficialis)
  3. External pudendal arteries (aa. pudendae externae)

    External pudendal arteries (aa. pudendae externae)
    External pudendal arteries (aa. pudendae externae)
    External pudendal arteries (aa. pudendae externae)
    External pudendal arteries (aa. pudendae externae)
  4. The deep external pudendal artery (a. pudenda externa profunda)

  5. The deep femoral artery (a. profunda femoris)

    Deep femoral artery (a. profunda femoris)
    Deep femoral artery (a. profunda femoris)
    Deep femoral artery (a. profunda femoris)
    Deep femoral artery (a. profunda femoris)
  6. The descending genicular artery (a. genicularis descending)

Descending genicular artery (a. genicularis descending)
Descending genicular artery (a. genicularis descending)
Descending genicular artery (a. genicularis descending)
Descending genicular artery (a. genicularis descending)

The superficial epigastric artery (a. epigastrica superficialis) passes through the cribriform fascia to the anterior side of the thigh, then upwards in the fiber of the anterior wall of the abdomen.

Superficial epigastric artery (a. epigastrica superficialis)
Superficial epigastric artery (a. epigastrica superficialis)
Superficial epigastric artery (a. epigastrica superficialis)
Superficial epigastric artery (a. epigastrica superficialis)

It supplies the inferior part of the aponeurosis of the external oblique muscle, subcutaneous tissue, and the skin of the anterior abdominal wall with blood.

The artery anastomoses with branches of the superior epigastric artery (from the internal thoracic artery).

The superficial circumflex iliac artery (a. circumflexa iliaca superficialis) arises below the previous one (or from the same trunk), and passes laterally parallel to the inguinal ligament to the anterior superior iliac spine, where it branches in the adjacent muscles and skin.

Superficial circumflex iliac artery (a. circumflexa iliaca superficialis)
Superficial circumflex iliac artery (a. circumflexa iliaca superficialis)
Superficial circumflex iliac artery (a. circumflexa iliaca superficialis)
Superficial circumflex iliac artery (a. circumflexa iliaca superficialis)

It anastomoses with the branches of the deep circumflex iliac artery (from the external iliac artery), and with the ascending branch of the lateral circumflex femoral artery.

The external pedundal arteries (aa. pudendae externae) in an amount of 2 or 3 pass through the saphenous open-

External pedundal arteries (aa. pudendae externae)
External pedundal arteries (aa. pudendae externae)
External pedundal arteries (aa. pudendae externae)
External pedundal arteries (aa. pudendae externae)

ing under the skin of the thigh. In men they pass to the scrotum and are called the anterior scrotal branches (rr. scrotales anteriores), and in women they pass to the labium majus and are called the anterior labial branches (rr. labiales anteriores).

Anterior labial branches (rr. scrotales anteriores).
Anterior labial branches (rr. scrotales anteriores).

The deep external pidendal artery (a. pudenda externa profunda) crosses the pectinate muscle and the adductor longus muscle, then passes through the fascia lata.

It supplies the skin of the perineum, as well as the skin of the scrotum or labia majora with blood.

The deep femoral artery (a. profunda femoris) is the largest branch of the femoral artery. It arises somewhat distal to the inguinal ligament. It is initially located laterally to the femoral artery, and then goes deeper towards the medial side of the femur. It passes between the pectinate muscle and the adductor longus muscle, then passes between the adductor longus and brevis muscles. It descends between the adductor longus and magnus muscles.

It supplies the extensors, flexors and adductor muscles of the thigh with blood.

Deep femoral artery (a. profunda femoris)
Deep femoral artery (a. profunda femoris)
Deep femoral artery (a. profunda femoris)
Deep femoral artery (a. profunda femoris)

It pierces the large adductor muscle and anastomoses with the muscular branches of the popliteal artery

The descending genicular artery (a. genicularis descendens) is the most distal branch that arises directly proximal to the adductor muscle opening in the adductor muscle canal. It descends inside the vastus medialis muscle to the medial side of the knee.

Descending genicular artery (a. genicularis descendens)
Descending genicular artery (a. genicularis descendens)

The artery supplies the vastus medialis muscle and the adductor magnus muscle, as well as the superior medial area of the thigh skin with blood.

Descending genicular artery (a. genicularis descendens)
Descending genicular artery (a. genicularis descendens)

The artery anastomoses with the superior medial genicular artery.

Dictionary

The femoral arteryand its branches

Aorta
aorta
Common iliac artery
a. iliaaca communis
External iliac artery
a. iliaca externa
Femoral artery
a. femoralis
Superficial epigastric artery
a. epigastrica superficialis
Superficial circumflex iliac artery
a. circumflexa iliaca superficialis
External pudendal arteries
aa. pudendae externae
Anterior scrotal branches
rr. scrotales anteriores
Anterior labial branches
rr. labiales anteriores
Deep external pudendalartery
a. pudenda externa profunda
Deep femoral artery
a. profunda femoris
Descending genicular artery
a. genicularis descendens
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