In this note, we will consider the anatomy, areas of blood drainage and anastomoses of the common iliac vein.
The common iliac vein (vv. iliacae communes) is a large paired valveless vein.
It is located parallel to the artery of the same name on the right and left at the level of the fifth lumbar vertebra, the promontory of the sacrum and the iliolumbar ligament.
The left common iliac artery is slightly longer, as it partially passes behind the right common iliac artery and aorta and merges with the right common iliac vein into the inferior vena cava (v. cava superior) at this level.
Both common iliac veins are formed by the confluence of the internal iliac vein (v. iliaca interna) and the external iliac vein (v. iliaca externa) in the area of the internal surface of the sacrum.
The common iliac vein drains venous blood from the lowe imbs, pelvic organs and sacral region.
The system of the common iliac vein is formed by the veins of the lower limbs and consists of the following vessels:
The external iliac vein (v. iliaca externa)
The inferior epigastric vein (v. epigastrica inferior), which ends by the external iliac vein
The femoral vein (v.femoralis), which also ends by the external iliac vein
The internal iliac vein (v. iliaca interna), which communicates with the femoral vein through anastomosis
The parietal tributaries of the internal iliac vein, which include:
the iliolumbar vein (v. iliolumbalis)
lateral sacral veins (vv. sacrales laterales)
obturator veins (vv. obturatoriae)
b) The visceral tributaries of the internal iliac vein include:
The hemorrhoidal plexus of the rectum (plexus rectalis)
The plexus of the symphysis, which drains blood from the genitals (plexus symphysis)
The plexus of the bladder (plexus vesicalis)
The plexus of the uterus and vagina in women, the prostate plexus in men (plexus uteri et vaginalis, plexus prostaticus)
The common iliac vein has virtually no true tributaries, with the exception of the median sacral vein (v.sacralis mediana), which ends by the left common iliac vein. The lateral sacral veins (vv.sacrales laterales), in turn, end by it.
They drain venous blood from the internal surface of the sacrum.
The iliac vein
- Common iliac veins
- vv. iliacae communes
- Internal and external iliac veins
- v. iliaca interna et v. iliaca externa
- Inferior epigastric vein
- v. epigastrica inferior
- Femoral vein
- v. femoralis
- Ilio-gluteal vein
- v. iliolumbalis
- Lateral sacral veins
- vv. sacrales lateralis
- Obturator veins
- vv. obturatoriae
- Hemorrhoidal plexus of the rectum
- Plexus of the symphysis, draining blood from the genitals
- Plexus of the urinarybladder
- Plexus of the uterusand vagina
- plexus uteri et vaginalis
- Prostate plexus
- plexus prostaticus
- Median sacral veins
- v. sacralis mediana
- Lateral sacral veins
- vv. sacrales laterales