The arteries of the upper limb supply the bones and soft tissues of the pectoral girdle, the lateral part of the thoracic wall, as well as all organs and tissues of the free part of the upper limb with blood.
In this video, we will consider the anatomy of the radial artery (arteria radialis) and its branches, as well as the area of blood supply.
The radial artery (arteria radialis) arises slightly distal to the gap of the shoulder joint and is a continuation of the brachial artery (a. brachialis).
It is located on the forearm between the circular pronator medially and the brachioradialis muscle, and in the lower third of the forearm it is covered only with fascia and skin, so it is easy to feel its pulsation here.
In the distal part of the forearm, the radial artery, having circumflexed the styloid process of the radius, passes to the dorsum of the hand under the tendons of the long muscles of the thumb (flexor, abductor, and extensor) and through the first interosseous gap goes to the palmar side of the hand.
The terminal part of the radial artery anastomoses with the deep palmar branch of the ulnar artery, forming a deep palmar arch (arcus palmaris profundus).
It has a number of branches along its length.
Muscular branches (rami musculares): these small branches supply blood to the muscles of the radial surface of the forearm, in particular the extensor muscles of the posterior forearm.
The radial recurrent artery (arteria recurrens radialis) arises from the initial part of the radial artery, goes laterally and superiorly, and passes in the anterior lateral bicipital groove.
Here it anastomoses with the radial collateral artery (arising from the deep brachial artery).
It supplies the elbow joint with blood.
The palmar carpal branch (ramus carpalis palmaris) arises from the radial artery at the distal edge of the pronator quadratus and runs along the anterior surface of the wrist bones.
It anastomoses with the palmar carpal branch of the ulnar artery and the anterior interosseous artery. It participates in the formation of the palmar plexus of the wrist.
The superficial palmar branch (ramus palmaris superficialis).
It goes to the palm in the thickness of the muscles of thenar eminence or inside of the flexor pollicis brevis and participates in the formation of the superficial palmar arch (arcus palmaris superficialis).
The deep palmar branch (ramus palmaris profundus) is a direct continuation of the radial artery.
It forms a deep palmar arch (arcus palmaris profundus) of the hand.
The medial part of the deep palmar arch ends with the deep palmar branch of the ulnar artery. The deep palmar arch passes through the palm between the bases of the metacarpals and the tendons of the flexor digitorum longus muscles.
The princeps pollicis artery (arteria princeps pollicis) divides into two palmar digital arteries passing bilaterally to the thumb.
The radialis indicis artery (arteria radialis indicis) goes to the finger of the same name.
The dorsal carpal branch (ramus carpalis dorsalis) arises from the radial artery on the dorsum of the hand and goes in the medial direction.
It anastomoses with the branch of the ulnar artery of the same name, forming the dorsal carpal arch (rete carpale dorsale) together with the branches of the interosseous arteries.
Three or four dorsal metacarpal arteries (arteriae metacarpales dorsales) arise from the latter.
From each of these arteries, in turn, two dorsal digital arteries (arteriae digitales dorsales) arise, which supply the dorsum of the fingers two to five with blood.
The first dorsal metacarpal artery (arteria metacarpalis dorsalis prima) arises from the radial artery at the dorsum of the hand. It gives off branches to the radial side of the first finger and to the adjacent sides of the first and second fingers.
Radial artery and its branches
- Brachial artery
- a. brachialis
- Radial artery
- a. radialis
- Deep palmar arch
- arcus palmaris profundus
- Muscular branches
- rr. musculares
- Radial recurrent artery
- a. recurrens radialis
- Palmar carpal branch
- r. carpalis palmaris
- Superficial palmar branch
- r. palmaris superficialis
- Deep palmar branch
- r. palmaris profundus
- Princeps pollicis artery
- a. princeps pollicis
- Radialis indicis artery
- a. radialis indicis
- Dorsal carpal branch
- r. carpalis dorsalis
- Dorsal carpal arch
- rete carpale dorsale
- Dorsal metacarpal arteries
- aa. metacarpales dorsales
- Dorsal digital arteries
- aa. digitales dorsales
- First dorsal metacarpal artery
- a. metacarpalis dorsalis prima