Surface projections of the heart

Surface projections of the heartHeart borders. Heart valves projections
~ 2 min

The heart (cor) is the main circulatory organ. It provides the whole body with nutrients and communicates all the vessels with each other.

Heart (cor)
Heart (cor)

The heart is located in the mediastinum, in the central part of the chest, where it tightly adheres to neighboring organs. In front, the heart borders on the sternum and cartilages of the fifth and sixthribs. Pleura layers adhere to the sides of the heart. Inferiorly, the heart adheres to the dome of the diaphragm.

Position of the heart in the chest
Position of the heart in the chest

The heart has the following surfaces:

  1. The anterior surface is called the sternocostal (facies sternocostalis)

    Sternocostal surface (facies sternocostalis)
    Sternocostal surface (facies sternocostalis)
  2. The inferior surface is called the diaphragmatic (facies diaphragmatica)

    Diaphragmatic surface (facies diaphragmatica)
    Diaphragmatic surface (facies diaphragmatica)
  3. The lateral surface is called the pulmonary (facies pulmonalis)

    Right pulmonary surface (facies pulmonalis)
    Right pulmonary surface (facies pulmonalis)
    Left pulmonary surface (facies pulmonalis)
    Left pulmonary surface (facies pulmonalis)
  4. The base of the heart (basis cordis)

    Base of the heart (basis cordis)
    Base of the heart (basis cordis)
  5. The apex of the heart (apex cordis)

Apex of the heart (apex cordis)
Apex of the heart (apex cordis)

The heart has the following borders:

  1. The superior one is a conditional line connecting the borders of the right and left third ribs.

    Superior border
    Superior border
  2. The right border spreads from the right third costal cartilage inferiorly to the right fifth costal cartilage.

    Right border
    Right border
  3. The left border goes from the superior edge of the thir ib to the apex of the heart.

    Left border
    Left border
  4. The inferior border goes from the fifth right costal cartilage to the apex of the heart.

    Inferior border
    Inferior border
  5. The apex of the heart (apex cordis) is located in the left fifth intercostal space, 1-1.5 cm interiorly to the medclavicular line.

    Apex of the heart (apex cordis)
    Apex of the heart (apex cordis)
  6. The base of the heart (basis cordis) is located below the middle of the thoracic cage

Base of the heart (basis cordis)
Base of the heart (basis cordis)

The heart valves are projected onto the anterior thoracic wall along a conditional oblique line. This line goes from the left third costal cartilage to the right sixth costal cartilage.

Projection line of the heart valves
Projection line of the heart valves

Each valve has its own projection points on the anterior thoracic wall:

  1. The mitral (bicuspid) valve is located at the level of the third left costal cartilage

    Projection of mitral (bicuspid) valve
    Projection of mitral (bicuspid) valve
    Mitral (bicuspid) valve (valva atrioventricularis sinistra)
    Mitral (bicuspid) valve (valva atrioventricularis sinistra)
  2. The tricuspid valve is located at the level of insertion of the fourth right costal cartilage into the sternum

    Projection of tricuspid valve
    Projection of tricuspid valve
    Tricuspid valve (valva atrioventricularis dextra)
    Tricuspid valve (valva atrioventricularis dextra)
  3. The aortic valve is located in the area of the third intercostal space at the left edge of the sternum.

    Projection of aortic valve
    Projection of aortic valve
    Aortic valve (valva aortae)
    Aortic valve (valva aortae)
  4. The pulmonary valve is located at the level of insertion of the third left costal cartilage into the sternum

Projection of pulmonary valve
Projection of pulmonary valve
Pulmonary valve (valva trunci pulmonalis)
Pulmonary valve (valva trunci pulmonalis)

The boundaries of the heart may shift slightly. It depends on a person’s physique and the shape of the heart itself, as well as on age.

At the age of 14, the heart takes its final, “adult” position.

Dictionary

Surface projections of the heart

Heart
cor
Sternocostal surface
facies sternocostalis
Diaphragmatic surface
facies diaphragmatica
Pulmonary surface
facies pulmonalis
Base of the heart
basis cordis
Apex of the heart
apex cordis
Main screen of the Easy Anatomy app

Download Easy Anatomy and try it for free

  • Anatomical atlas
  • Interactive notes
  • Videos on Anatomy
  • Flashcard tests

Easy Anatomy

Learn anatomy effectively

3.2K

Функция доступна в приложении

Download the app