Venous anastomoses

Venous anastomosesPlacement and anatomical features of major venous anastomoses
~ 3 min

In the venous system, as well as in the arterial system, there is a large network of anastomoses, which plays an important role in the processes of adaptation in various pathologies. They provide bypass blood flow in the case of thrombosis of the main vein or increased pressure (for example, cirrhosis of the liver).

In this note, we will consider the main systems of venous anastomoses.

The first anastomosis of the superior vena cava with the inferior vena cava

The branches involved in the formation of anastomosis from the superior vena cava are the superior epigastric vein (v. epigastrica superior), which is a tributary of the internal thoracic vein and the thoraco-epigastric vein (v. thoracoepigastrica), which is a tributary of the axillary vein.

Superior epigastric vein (v. epigastrica superior)
Superior epigastric vein (v. epigastrica superior)
Thoraco-epigastric vein (v. thoracoepigastrica)
Thoraco-epigastric vein (v. thoracoepigastrica)

The branches involved in the formation of anastomosis from the inferior vena cava are the inferior epigastric vein (v. epigastrica inferior), which is a tributary of the external iliac vein, and the superficial epigastric vein (v. epigastrica superficialis), which is a tributary of the femoral vein.

Inferior epigastric vein (v. epigastrica inferior)
Inferior epigastric vein (v. epigastrica inferior)
Superficial epigastric vein (v. epigastrica superficialis)
Superficial epigastric vein (v. epigastrica superficialis)

The anastomosis is located in the thickness of the anterior wall of the abdomen.

The second anastomosis of the superior vena cava with the inferior vena cava

The branches involved in the formation of anastomosis from the side of the superior vena cava are azygos and hemi-azygos veins (vv. azygos et hemiazygos), right and left ascending lumbar veins (vv. lumbales ascendes dexter et sinister).

Azygos vein (v. azygos)
Azygos vein (v. azygos)
Hemi-azygos vein (v. hemiazygos)
Hemi-azygos vein (v. hemiazygos)

The branches involved in the formation of anastomosis from the inferior vena cava are the right and left lumbar veins (vv. lumbales ascendens dexter et sinister).

Right and left lumbar veins (vv. lumbales ascendens dexter et sinister)
Right and left lumbar veins (vv. lumbales ascendens dexter et sinister)

The anastomosis is located on the posterior wall of the abdomen.

The third anastomosis of the superior vena cava with the inferior vena cava

The branches involved in the formation of anastomosis from the superior vena cava are the spinal veins (vv. spinales), which are tributaries of the spinal branches of the posterior intercostal veins.

Spinal veins (vv. spinales)
Spinal veins (vv. spinales)

The branches involved in the formation of anastomosis from the inferior vena cava are spinal veins (vv. spinales), which are tributaries of the lumbar veins.

The anastomosis is located inside the vertebral canal and around the vertebral column.

Spinal veins (vv. spinales)
Spinal veins (vv. spinales)

The first anastomosis of the superior vena cava with the hepatic portal vein

The branches involved in the formation of anastomosis from the superior vena cava are the superior epigastric veins (vv. epigastricae superiores), which are tributaries of the internal thoracic vein.

The branches involved in the formation of anastomosis from the hepatic portal vein are the para-umbilical veins (vv. paraumbilicales).

The anastomosis is located in the thickness of the anterior wall of the abdomen.

Superior epigastric veins (vv. epigastricae superiores)
Superior epigastric veins (vv. epigastricae superiores)
Para-umbilical veins (vv. paraumbilicales)
Para-umbilical veins (vv. paraumbilicales)

The second anastomosis of the superior vena cava with the hepatic portal vein

The branches involved in the formation of anastomosis from the side of the superior vena cava are esophageal veins (vv. oesophageales), which are tributaries of the azygos vein.

Esophageal veins (vv. oesophageales)
Esophageal veins (vv. oesophageales)

The branch involved in the formation of anastomosis from the portal vein of the liver is the left gastric vein (v. gastrica sinistra).

Left gastric vein (v. gastrica sinistra)
Left gastric vein (v. gastrica sinistra)

The anastomosis is located in the region of the stomach cardia.

The first anastomosis of the inferior vena cava with the hepatic portal vein

The branches involved in the formation of anastomosis from the inferior vena cava are the inferior epigastric vein (v. epigastrica inferior), which is a tributary of the external iliac vein.

Inferior epigastric vein (v. epigastrica inferior)
Inferior epigastric vein (v. epigastrica inferior)

The branches involved in the formation of anastomosis from the hepatic portal vein are the para-umbilical veins (vv. paraumbilicales).

Para-umbilical veins (vv. paraumbilicales)
Para-umbilical veins (vv. paraumbilicales)

The anastomosis is located in the thickness of the anterior wall of the abdomen.

The second anastomosis of the inferior vena cava with the hepatic portal vein

The branches involved in the formation of anastomosis from the inferior vena cava are the middle rectal vein (v. rectalis media), which is a tributary of the internal iliac vein,

Middle rectal vein (v. rectalis media)
Middle rectal vein (v. rectalis media)

the inferior rectal vein (v. rectalis inferior), which is a tributary of the internal pudendal vein.

Inferior rectal vein (v. rectalis inferior)
Inferior rectal vein (v. rectalis inferior)

The branches involved in the formation of anastomosis from the hepatic portal vein are the superior rectal vein (v. rectalis superior), which is a tributary of the inferior mesenteric vein.

Superior rectal vein (v. rectalis superior)
Superior rectal vein (v. rectalis superior)

The anastomosis is located in the wall of the rectum.

Dictionary

Venous anastomoses

Superior epigastric veins
v. epigastrica superior
Thoraco-epigastric vein
v. thoracoepigastrica
Inferior epigastric vein
v. epigastrica inferior
Superficial epigastric vein
v. epigastrica superficialis
Azygos and hemi-azygos veins
vv. azygos et hemiazygos
Right and left ascending lumbar veins
vv. lumbales ascendens dexter et sinister
Right and leftlumbar veins
vv. lumbales dexter et sinister
Spinal veins
vv. spinales
Superior epigastric veins
vv. epigastricae superiores
Para-umbilical veins
vv. paraumbilicales
Esophageal veins
vv. esophageales
Left gastric vein
v. gastrica sinistra
Inferior epigastric vein
v. epigastrica inferior
Middle rectal veins
v. rectalis media
Inferior rectal veins
v. rectalis inferior
Superior rectal vein
v. rectalis superior
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