Endocrine System: Overview

Endocrine System: OverviewClassification and functions of endocrine organs. Chemical types of hormones
~ 3 min

The endocrine system is a collection of special organs, known as glands, that regulate all metabolic processes in our body.

Endocrine system
Endocrine system

These glands produce chemical substances – hormones, which travel to the corresponding target organs where they provide their action.

Together with the nervous system, hormones regulate our growth, metabolism, body temperature, reproductive function, and much more.

The endocrine system consists of:

  • Endocrine glands
  • Endocrine parts of non-endocrine organs
  • Individual cells located in different organs that form the diffuse neuroendocrine system

Endocrine glands include:

  • Pituitary gland (hypophysis)
Pituitary gland (hypophysis)
Pituitary gland (hypophysis)
Pituitary gland (hypophysis)
Pituitary gland (hypophysis)
  • Pineal gland (glandula pinealis)
Pineal gland (glandula pinealis)
Pineal gland (glandula pinealis)
Pineal gland (glandula pinealis)
Pineal gland (glandula pinealis)
  • Thyroid gland (glandula thyroidea)
Thyroid gland (glandula thyroidea)
Thyroid gland (glandula thyroidea)
Thyroid gland (glandula thyroidea)
Thyroid gland (glandula thyroidea)
  • Parathyroid glands (glandulae parathyreoideae)
Parathyroid glands (glandulae parathyreoideae)
Parathyroid glands (glandulae parathyreoideae)
  • Adrenal glands (glandulae suprarenales)
Adrenal glands (glandulae suprarenales)
Adrenal glands (glandulae suprarenales)

Endocrine parts of non-endocrine organs include:

  • Endocrine nuclei of the hypothalamus (hypothalamus)
Hypothalamus (hypothalamus)
Hypothalamus (hypothalamus)
Hypothalamus (hypothalamus)
Hypothalamus (hypothalamus)
  • Pancreatic islets of Langerhans
Pancreas (pancreas)
Pancreas (pancreas)
Pancreas (pancreas)
Pancreas (pancreas)
  • Endocrine cells of the testes (testes) and ovaries (ovaria)
Testes (testes)
Testes (testes)
Testis | testicle (testis)
Testis | testicle (testis)
Ovary (ovarium)
Ovary (ovarium)

The diffuse neuroendocrine system includes individual cells located in various organs, such as the stomach, intestines, liver, heart, lungs, thymus, as well as cells of adipose tissue.

The hypothalamus is considered the central organ of the endocrine system, as it controls the functioning of peripheral glands.

Hypothalamus (hypothalamus)
Hypothalamus (hypothalamus)

Hormones, by their chemical nature, can be:

  1. Steroid hormones (derivatives of cholesterol)
  2. Protein hormones
  3. Hormones derived from amino acids

In the “Endocrine System” video series, we will discuss in greater detail the structure of each gland and explore the various hormones they secrete.

Glossary

Endocrine System: Overview

pituitary gland
hypophysis
pineal gland
glandula pinealis
thyroid gland
glandula thyroidea
parathyroid glands
glandulae parathyreoideae
adrenal glands
glandulae suprarenales
hypothalamus
hypothalamus
pancreas
pancreas
testis
testis
ovary
ovarium
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