Leg muscles: Posterior group

Muscles of the leg: Posterior groupAnatomy, function, blood supply and innervation of muscles of the leg
~ 3 min

In this pdf-note, we’ll start with the borders of the lower limb:

  • The posterior border passes through the coccyx and the lateral margins of the sacrum

  • The lateral border is the iliac crest

  • The anterior border passes through the inguinal ligament and the pubic symphysis

Borders of the lower limb
Borders of the lower limb
Borders of the lower limb
Borders of the lower limb

There are several regions within the lower limb:

  1. Gluteal region (regio glutealis)

  2. Femoral region (regio femoralis)

  3. Knee region (regio genus)

  4. Leg region (regio cruralis)

  5. Ankle region (regio talocruralis)

  6. Foot region (regio pedis)

Regions within the lower limb
Regions within the lower limb
Regions within the lower limb
Regions within the lower limb

Within these areas, the muscles of the lower limb are located.

These include:

  • Pelvic girdle muscles

  • Muscles of the free part of lower limb

    The muscles of the free part of the lower limb are divided into:

  • Thigh muscles

  • Leg muscles

  • Foot muscles

    The leg muscles form three groups:

  • The anterior group consists of the extensors of the foot

  • The posterior group consists of the flexors and supinators of the foot

  • The lateral group consists of the foot abductor muscles The posterior group is divided into two layers.

    The superficial layer includes the following muscles:

  • Triceps surae muscle (m. triceps surae), which consists of two separate muscles:

    Triceps surae muscle (m. triceps surae)
    Triceps surae muscle (m. triceps surae)
    Triceps surae muscle (m. triceps surae)
    Triceps surae muscle (m. triceps surae)

    Gastrocnemius muscle (m. gastrocnemius), which has two heads: lateral and medial.

    Gastrocnemius muscle (m. gastrocnemius) – caput mediale
    Gastrocnemius muscle (m. gastrocnemius) - caput mediale
    Gastrocnemius muscle (m. gastrocnemius) – caput laterale
    Gastrocnemius muscle (m. gastrocnemius) - caput laterale
    Gastrocnemius muscle
    (m. gastrocnemius)

    Origin:

    Lateral head (caput laterale) is the lateral epicondyle of the femur

    Medial head (caput mediale) is the medial epicondyle of the femur

    Insertion: both heads are connected into a common belly, which then continues to the calcaneal (Achilles) tendon, which inserts into the calcaneal tubercle of the calcaneus.

    Function: flexes the leg, provides plantar flexion of the foot

    Innervation: tibial nerve (L4-S2)

    Blood supply: posterior tibial artery

    Soleus muscle (m. soleus)

    Soleus muscle (m. soleus)
    Soleus muscle (m. soleus)
    Soleus muscle (m. soleus)
    Soleus muscle (m. soleus)
    Soleus muscle (m. soleus)
    Soleus muscle (m. soleus)
    Soleus muscle
    (m. soleus)

    Origin: soleal line of the tibia, head of the fibula

    Insertion: tendon of this muscle connects with the tendon of the gastrocnemius forming the calcaneal (Achilles) tendon, which inserts into the calcaneal tubercle of the calcaneus

    Function: flexes the leg, provides plantar flexion of the foot

    Innervation: tibial nerve (L4-S2)

    Blood supply: posterior tibial artery

  • Plantaris muscle (m. plantaris), which is rudimentary

    Plantaris muscle (m. plantaris)
    Plantaris muscle (m. plantaris)
    Plantaris muscle (m. plantaris)
    Plantaris muscle (m. plantaris)
    Plantaris muscle (m. plantaris)
    Plantaris muscle (m. plantaris)
    Plantaris muscle
    (m. plantaris)

    Origin: lateral epicondyle of the femur, oblique popliteal ligament

    Insertion: the muscle is either woven into the Achilles tendon or inserts on its own into the calcaneal tubercle of the calcaneus

    Function: flexes the leg and the foot (plantar flexion), stretches the capsule of the knee joint

    Innervation: tibial nerve (L4-S2)

    Blood supply: popliteal artery

    The deep layer includes the following muscles:

  • Popliteus muscle (m. popliteus)

    Popliteus muscle (m. popliteus)
    Popliteus muscle (m. popliteus)
    Popliteus muscle (m. popliteus)
    Popliteus muscle (m. popliteus)
    Popliteus muscle (m. popliteus)
    Popliteus muscle (m. popliteus)
    Popliteus muscle
    (m. popliteus)

    Origin: lateral epicondyle of the femur, capsule of the knee joint

    Insertion: posterior surface of the tibia

    Function: flexes the leg, pronates the leg, stretches the capsule of the knee joint

    Innervation: tibial nerve (L4-S2)

    Blood supply: popliteal artery

  • Flexor digitorum longus muscle (m. flexor digitorum longus)

    Flexor digitorum longus muscle (m. flexor digitorum longus)
    Flexor digitorum longus muscle (m. flexor digitorum longus)
    Flexor digitorum longus muscle (m. flexor digitorum longus)
    Flexor digitorum longus muscle (m. flexor digitorum longus)
    Flexor digitorum longus muscle (m. flexor digitorum longus)
    Flexor digitorum longus muscle (m. flexor digitorum longus)
    Flexor digitorum longus muscle
    (m. flexor digitorum longus)

    Origin: posterior surface of the body of the tibia, deep fascia of the leg, posterior intermuscular septum of the leg

    Insertion: divides into 4 tendons, which insert into the plantar surface of the distal phalanges of toes 2-5

    Function: flexes the distal phalanges of toes 2-5, participates in plantar flexion of the foot

    Innervation: tibial nerve (L4-S2)

    Blood supply: posterior tibial artery

  • Flexor hallucis longus muscle (m. flexor hallucis longus)

    Flexor hallucis longus muscle (m. flexor hallucis longus)
    Flexor hallucis longus muscle (m. flexor hallucis longus)
    Flexor hallucis longus muscle (m. flexor hallucis longus)
    Flexor hallucis longus muscle (m. flexor hallucis longus)
    Flexor hallucis longus muscle
    (m. flexor hallucis longus)

    Origin: inferior two thirds of the body of the fibula, interosseous membrane of the leg

    Insertion: plantar surface of the distal phalange of the great toe

    Function: flexes the great toe, participates in supination and adduction of the foot

    Innervation: tibial nerve (L4-S2)

    Blood supply: posterior tibial artery, fibular artery

  • Tibialis posterior muscle (m. tibialis posterior)

Tibialis posterior muscle (m. tibialis posterior)
Tibialis posterior muscle (m. tibialis posterior)
Tibialis posterior muscle (m. tibialis posterior)
Tibialis posterior muscle (m. tibialis posterior)
Tibialis posterior muscle
(m. tibialis posterior)

Origin: lateral condyle of the tibia, superior two thirds of the shaft of the tibia, posterior surface of the shaft of the fibula, interosseous membrane of the leg

Insertion: tuberosity of the navicular bone, sphenoidal bones, base of the 4th metatarsal

Function: flexes the foot (plantar flexion), adducts and supinates the foot

Innervation: tibial nerve (L4-S2)

Blood supply: posterior tibial artery

Dictionary

Muscles of the leg

Gluteal region
regio glutealis
Femoral region
regio femoralis
Knee region
regio genus
Leg region
regio cruralis
Ankle region
regio talocruralis
Foot region
regio pedis
Triceps surae muscle
m. triceps surae
Gastrocnemius muscle
m. gastrocnemius
Soleus muscle
m. soleus
Plantans muscle
m. plantaris
Popliteus muscle
m. popliteus
Flexor digitorum longus muscle
m. flexor digitorum longus
Flexor hallucis longu muscle
m. flexor hallucis longus
Tibialis posterior muscle
m. tibialis posterior
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