Muscles of the hand: Central group

Muscles of the hand: Central groupAnatomy, function, blood supply and innervation of the muscles of the hand
~ 3 min

In this pdf-note, we’ll start with the borders of the upper limb:

  • The anterior border is the deltopectoral groove

  • The posterior border is the posterior deltoid groove

    Borders of the upper limb
    Borders of the upper limb
    Borders of the upper limb
    Borders of the upper limb

    Within the upper limb, there are many regions:

  • Deltoid region (regio deltoidea)

  • Axillary region (regio axillaris)

  • Anterior region of the arm (regio brachialis anterior)

  • Posterior region of the arm (regio brachialis posterior)

  • Anterior region of the elbow (regio cubitalis anterior)

  • Posterior region of the elbow (regio cubitalis posterior)

  • Anterior region of the forearm (regio antero brachialis anterior)

  • Posterior region of the forearm (regio anterobrachialis posterior)

  • Anterior region of the wrist (regio carpalis anterior)

  • Posterior region of the wrist (regio carpalis posterior)

  • Palmar region of the hand (regio palmaris manus)

  • Dorsal region of the hand (regio dorsalis manus)

    Regions of the upper limb
    Regions of the upper limb
    Regions of the upper limb
    Regions of the upper limb

    Within these areas, the muscles of the upper limb are located.

    These include:

  • Pectoral girdle muscles

  • Muscles of the free part of upper limb

    The muscles of the free part of the upper limb are divided into:

  • Arm muscles

  • Forearm muscles

  • Hand muscles

    There are three groups among the muscles of the hand:

  • The thenar eminence muscles (thenar) is the lateral group

  • The hypothenar eminence muscles (hypothenar) form the medial group

  • The middle muscle group

    The middle muscle group includes:

  • Lumbricals muscles (mm. lumbricales)

    Lumbricals muscles (mm. lumbricales)
    Lumbricals muscles (mm. lumbricales)
    Lumbricals muscles
    (mm. lumbricales)

    Origin: tendon of the flexor digitorium profundus muscle

    Insertion: these muscles pass to the radial side of the fingers 2-5, where they pass to the dorsal surface of the proximal phalanges and insert into the dorsal aponeuroses

    Function: flex the proximal phalanges of fingers 2-5, extend the middle and distal phalanges of fingers 2-5

    Innervation: first and second muscles are innvervated by the median nerve (C5-Th1), third and fourth muscles are innervated by the ulnar nerve (C5-Th1)

    Blood supply: superficial palmar arterial arch, deep palmar arterial arch

  • Palmar interossei muscles (mm. interossei palmares)

    Palmar interossei muscles (mm. interossei palmares)
    Palmar interossei muscles (mm. interossei palmares)
    Palmar interossei muscles
    (mm. interossei palmares)

    Origin:

    The first muscle arises from the medial margin of the 2nd metacarpal

    The second and the third muscles arise from the lateral margin of the 4th and the 5th metacarpals

    Insertion:

    The first muscle inserts into the medial surface of the capsule of the metacarpophalangeal joint of the 2nd finger

    The second and the third muscles insert into the lateral surface of the capsules of the metacarpophalangeal joint of the fingers 4 and 5

    Function: adducts fingers 2, 4 and 5 to the middle one

    Innervation: ulnar nerve (C7-Th1)

    Blood supply: deep palmar arterial arch

  • Dorsal interossei muscles (mm. interossei dorsales)

Dorsal interossei muscles (mm. interossei dorsales)
Dorsal interossei muscles (mm. interossei dorsales)
Dorsal interossei muscles
(mm. interossei dorsales)

Origin: surfaces of the metacarpals 1-5 facing each other

Insertion:

The first and the second muscles insert into the lateral surface of the proximal phalanges of the fingers 2 and 3

The third and the fourth muscles insert into the medial surface of the proxial phalanges of the fingers 3 and 4

Function: abducts fingers 1, 2, 4 from the middle one

Innervation: ulnar nerve (C7-Th1)

Blood supply: deep palmar arterial arch, posterior metacarpal arteries

Dictionary

Muscles of the hand

Deltoid region
regio deltoidea
Axillary region
regio axillaris
Anterior region of the arm
regio brachialis anterior
Posterior region of the arm
regio brachialis posterior
Anterior region of the elbow
regio cubitalis anterior
Posterior region of the elbow
regio cubitalis posterior
Anterior region of the forearm
regio anterobrachialis anterior
Posterior region of the forearm
regio anterobrachialis posterior
Anterior region of the wrist
regio carpalis anterior
Posterior region of the wrist
regio carpalis posterior
Palmar region of the hand
regio palmaris manus
Dorsal region of the hand
regio dorsalis manus
Thenar eminence
thenar
Hypothenar eminence
hypothenar
Lumbricals muscles
mm. lumbricales
Palmar interossei muscles
mm. interossei palmares
Dorsal interossei muscles
mm. interossei dorsales
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