Pelvic muscles

Muscles of the hip: Anatomy and FunctionAnatomy, function, blood supply and innervation of muscles of the hip
~ 3 min

In this pdf-note, we’ll start with the borders of the lower limb:

  • The posterior border passes through the coccyx and the lateral margins of the sacrum

  • The lateral border is the iliac crest

  • The anterior border passes through the inguinal ligament and the pubic symphysis

Borders of the lower limb
Borders of the lower limb
Borders of the lower limb
Borders of the lower limb

There are several regions within the lower limb:

  1. Gluteal region (regio glutealis)

  2. Femoral region (regio femoralis)

  3. Knee region (regio genus)

  4. Leg region (regio cruralis)

  5. Ankle region (regio talocruralis)

  6. Foot region (regio pedis)

Regions within the lower limb
Regions within the lower limb
Regions within the lower limb
Regions within the lower limb

Within these areas, the muscles of the lower limb are located.

These include:

  • Pelvic girdle muscles

  • Muscles of the free part of lower limb

    The pelvic girdle muscles form two groups: internal and external. The internal muscles of the pelvis include:

  • Iliopsoas muscle (m. iliopsoas), which consists of two muscles

    Iliopsoas muscle (m. iliopsoas)
    Iliopsoas muscle (m. iliopsoas)

    Psoas major muscle (m. psoas major)

    Psoas major muscle (m. psoas major)
    Psoas major muscle (m. psoas major)
    Psoas major muscle (m. psoas major)
    Psoas major muscle (m. psoas major)
    Psoas major muscle
    (m. psoas major)

    Origin: intervertebral discs, bodies and transverse processes of the vertebrae Th12, L1-L5

    Insertion: connects with the iliacus muscle and inserts into the lesser trochanter of the femur

    Function: flexes the thigh, supinates the thigh, tilts the trunk anteriorly when the lower limb is fixed

    Innervation: muscular branches of the lumbar plexus (L1-L4)

    Blood supply: iliolumbar artery, deep circumflex iliac artery

    Iliacus muscle (m. iliacus)

    Iliacus muscle (m. iliacus)
    Iliacus muscle (m. iliacus)
    Iliacus muscle (m. iliacus)
    Iliacus muscle (m. iliacus)
    Iliacus muscle
    (m. iliacus)

    Origin: iliac fossa, inner lip of the iliac fossa, anterior sacro-iliac ligament, and iliolumbar ligament

    Insertion: connects with the psoas major muscle and inserts into the lesser trochanter of the femur

    Function: flexes the thigh, supinates the thigh, tilts the trunk anteriorly when the lower limb is fixed

    Innervation: muscular branches of the lumbar plexus (L1-L4)

    Blood supply: iliolumbar artery, deep circumflex iliac artery

  • Psoas minor muscle (m. psoas minor)

    Psoas minor muscle (m. psoas minor)
    Psoas minor muscle (m. psoas minor)
    Psoas minor muscle (m. psoas minor)
    Psoas minor muscle (m. psoas minor)
    Psoas minor muscle
    (m. psoas minor)

    Origin: bodies of the Th12-L1 vertebrae

    Insertion: arcuate line of the ilium bone, iliopubic ramus, iliopectineal arch

    Function: stretches the iliopsoas fascia, flexes the thigh, supinates the thigh, flexes the lumbar spine

    Innervation: muscular branches of the lumbar plexus (L1-L4)

    Blood supply: lumbar arteries

  • Obturator internus muscle (m. obturator internus)

    Obturator internus muscle (m. obturator internus)
    Obturator internus muscle (m. obturator internus)
    Obturator internus muscle (m. obturator internus)
    Obturator internus muscle (m. obturator internus)
    Obturator internus muscle
    (m. obturator internus)

    Origin: internal surface of the obturator membrane, edges of the obturator foramen

    Insertion: greater trochanter of the thigh bone

    Function: supinates the thigh

    Innervation: muscular branches of the sacral plexus (L4-L5, S1-S3)

    Blood supply: inferior gluteal, obturator, internal pudendal arteries

  • Piriformis muscle (m. piriformis)

    Piriformis muscle (m. piriformis)
    Piriformis muscle (m. piriformis)
    Piriformis muscle (m. piriformis)
    Piriformis muscle (m. piriformis)
    Piriformis muscle (m. piriformis)
    Piriformis muscle (m. piriformis)
    Piriformis muscle
    (m. piriformis)

    Origin: pelvic surface of the sacrum

    Insertion: greater trochanter of the thigh bone

    Function: supinates the thigh, abducts the thigh

    Innervation: muscle branches of the sacral plexus (S1-S3)

    Blood supply: superior gluteal artery, inferior gluteal artery

    The external muscles of the pelvis include:

  • Gemellus superior muscle (m. gemellus superior)

    Gemellus superior muscle (m. gemellus superior)
    Gemellus superior muscle (m. gemellus superior)
    Gemellus superior muscle (m. gemellus superior)
    Gemellus superior muscle (m. gemellus superior)
    Gemellus superior muscle (m. gemellus superior)
    Gemellus superior muscle (m. gemellus superior)
    Gemellus superior muscle
    (m. gemellus superior)

    Origin: ischium bone

    Insertion: connects with the tendon of the obturator internus muscle and inserts into the greater trochanter of the femur

    Function: supinates the thigh, and holds the pelvis in an upright position when the lower limb is fixed

    Innervation: muscle branches of the sacral plexus (S1-S3)

    Blood supply: superior gluteal artery, inferior gluteal artery

  • Inferior gemellus muscle (m. gemellus inferior)

    Inferior gemellus muscle (m. gemellus inferior)
    Inferior gemellus muscle (m. gemellus inferior)
    Inferior gemellus muscle (m. gemellus inferior)
    Inferior gemellus muscle (m. gemellus inferior)
    Inferior gemellus muscle (m. gemellus inferior)
    Inferior gemellus muscle (m. gemellus inferior)
    Inferior gemellus muscle
    (m. gemellus inferior)

    Origin: ischial tuberosity

    Insertion: connects with the tendon of the obturator internus muscle and inserts into the greater trochanter of the femur

    Function: supinates the thigh, and holds the pelvis in an upright position when the lower limb is fixed

    Innervation: muscle branches of the sacral plexus (S1-S3)

    Blood supply: superior gluteal artery, inferior gluteal artery

  • Gluteus maximus muscle (m. gluteus maximus)

    Gluteus maximus muscle (m. gluteus maximus)
    Gluteus maximus muscle (m. gluteus maximus)
    Gluteus maximus muscle (m. gluteus maximus)
    Gluteus maximus muscle (m. gluteus maximus)
    Gluteus maximus muscle
    (m. gluteus maximus)

    Origin: external surface and crest of the ilium, dorsal surface of the sacrum, sacrotuberous ligament

    Insertion: gluteal tuberosity of the thigh, iliotibial tract of the fascia lata of the femur

    Function: extends the thigh; with bilateral contraction, it maintains balance and keeps the body in an upright position

    Innervation: inferior gluteal nerve (L5-S2)

    Blood supply: superior gluteal artery, inferior gluteal artery, medial circumflex femoral artery

  • Gluteus medius muscle (m. gluteus medius)

    Gluteus medius muscle (m. gluteus medius)
    Gluteus medius muscle (m. gluteus medius)
    Gluteus medius muscle (m. gluteus medius)
    Gluteus medius muscle (m. gluteus medius)
    Gluteus medius muscle (m. gluteus medius)
    Gluteus medius muscle (m. gluteus medius)
    Gluteus medius muscle
    (m. gluteus medius)

    Origin: arises between the anterior and the posterior gluteal line of the ilium, as well as from the fascia lata of the thigh

    Insertion: greater trochanter of the thigh bone

    Function: abducts the thigh, pronates the thigh (front bundles), supinates the thigh (rear bundles)

    Innervation: superior gluteal nerve (L4-S1)

    Blood supply: superior gluteal artery, lateral circumflex femoral artery

  • Gluteus minimus muscle (m. gluteus minimus)

    Gluteus minimus muscle (m. gluteus minimus)
    Gluteus minimus muscle (m. gluteus minimus)
    Gluteus minimus muscle (m. gluteus minimus)
    Gluteus minimus muscle (m. gluteus minimus)
    Gluteus minimus muscle
    (m. gluteus minimus)

    Origin: external surface of the wing of the ilium between the middle and the inferior gluteal lines, edge of the greater sciatic notch

    Insertion: greater trochanter of the thigh bone

    Function: abducts the thigh, pronates the thigh (front bundles), supinates the thigh (rear bundles)

    Innervation: superior gluteal nerve (L4-S1)

    Blood supply: superior gluteal artery, lateral circumflex femoral artery

  • Tensor fasciae latae muscle (m. tensor fasciae latae)

    Tensor fasciae latae muscle (m. tensor fasciae latae)
    Tensor fasciae latae muscle (m. tensor fasciae latae)
    Tensor fasciae latae muscle (m. tensor fasciae latae)
    Tensor fasciae latae muscle (m. tensor fasciae latae)
    Tensor fasciae latae muscle
    (m. tensor fasciae latae)

    Origin: outer lip of the iliac crest, anterior superior iliac spine

    Insertion: passes into the ilitibial tract of the fascia lata of the femur (tractus iliotibialis), which inserts into the lateral condyle of the tibia

    Function: stretches the fascia lata of the femur, strengthens the knee joint in the extended position, flexes the thigh

    Innervation: superior gluteal nerve (L4-S1)

    Blood supply: superior gluteal artery, lateral circumflex femoral artery

  • Quadratus femoris muscle (m. quadratus femoris)

    Quadratus femoris muscle (m. quadraatus femoris)
    Quadratus femoris muscle (m. quadraatus femoris)
    Quadratus femoris muscle (m. quadraatus femoris)
    Quadratus femoris muscle (m. quadraatus femoris)
    Quadratus femoris muscle
    (m. quadratus femoris)

    Origin: ischial tuberosity

    Insertion: intertrochanteric crest and greater trochanter of the femur

    Function: supinates the thigh

    Innervation: sciatic nerve (L4-S1)

    Blood supply: inferior gluteal artery, medial circumflex femoral artery, obturator artery

  • Obturator externus muscle (m. obturatorius externus)

Obturator externus muscle (m. obturatorius externus)
Obturator externus muscle (m. obturatorius externus)
Obturator externus muscle (m. obturatorius externus)
Obturator externus muscle (m. obturatorius externus)
Obturator externus muscle (m. obturatorius externus)
Obturator externus muscle (m. obturatorius externus)
Obturator externus muscle
(m. obturatorius externus)

Origin: external surface of the obturator membrane, edges of the obturator foramen

Insertion: greater trochanter of the femur, capsule of the hip joint

Function: supinates the thigh

Innervation: obturator nerve (L2-L4)

Blood supply: obturator artery, lateral circumflex femoral artery

Dictionary

Muscles of the hip

Gluteal region
regio glutealis
Femoral region
regio femoralis
Knee region
regio genus
Leg region
regio cruralis
Ankle region
regio talocruralis
Foot region
regio pedis
Iliopsoas muscle
m. iliopsoas
Psoas major muscle
m. psoas major
Iliacus muscle
m. iliacus
Psoas minor muscle
m. psoas minor
Obturator internus muscle
m. obturator internus
Piriformis muscle
m. piriformis
Gemellus superior muscle
m. gemellus superior
Gemellus inferior muscle
m. gemellus inferior
Gluteus maximus muscle
m. gluteus maximus
Gluteus medius muscle
m. gluteus medius
Gluteus minimus muscle
m. gluteus minimus
Tensor fasciae latae muscle
m. tensor fasciae latae
Quadratus femoris muscle
m. quadratus femoris
Obturator externus muscle
m. obturatorius externus
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