Femur

Femur: Anatomy & FunctionKey facts about the anatomy of the femur, also known as the thigh bone
~ 3 min

Let us examine the structure of the femur.

It has the following parts:
It has the following parts:

Femur

  • body (corpus femoris/diaphysis)

Body (corpus femoris/diaphysis)
Body (corpus femoris/diaphysis)
  • proximal epiphysis (epiphysis proximalis)

    Proximal epiphysis (epiphysis proximalis)
    Proximal epiphysis (epiphysis proximalis)
  • distal epiphysis (epiphysis distalis)

    Distal epiphysis (epiphysis distalis)
    Distal epiphysis (epiphysis distalis)

    There are also two surfaces:

  • anterior surface (facies anterior)

    Anterior surface (facies anterior)
    Anterior surface (facies anterior)
  • posterior surface (facies posterior)

    Posterior surface (facies posterior)
    Posterior surface (facies posterior)

    On the proximal epiphysis is the head of the femur (caput femoris), which is involved in the formation of the hip joint.

    Femoral head (caput femoris)
    Femoral head (caput femoris)

    In the central part of the head there is the fovea for the ligament of the femoral head (fovea capitis ossis femoris).

    Fovea for the ligament of the femoral head (fovea capitis ossis femoris)
    Fovea for the ligament of the femoral head (fovea capitis ossis femoris)

    The head is followed distally by the neck of the femur (collum femoris).

    Neck of the femur (collum femoris).
    Neck of the femur (collum femoris).

    On the border of the head and the neck there is an eminence — the greater trochanter (trochanter major);

    Greater trochanter (trochanter major)
    Greater trochanter (trochanter major)

    and the lesser trochanter (trochanter minor).

    Lesser trochanter (trochanter minor)
    Lesser trochanter (trochanter minor)

    On the medial surface of the greater trochanter is the trochanteric fossa (fossa trochanterica).

    Trochanteric fossa (fossa trochanterica)
    Trochanteric fossa (fossa trochanterica)

    There are also formations between the trochanters. In the front is the intertrochanteric line (linea intertrochanterica); in the back is the intertrochanteric crest (crista intertrochanterica).

    Intertrochanteric crest (crista intertrochanterica).
    Intertrochanteric crest (crista intertrochanterica).

    The body of the femur has a linea aspera (linea aspera) in which the medial lip (labium mediale) and the lateral lip (labium laterale) can be distinguished.

    Linea aspera (linea aspera)
    Linea aspera (linea aspera)
    Medial lip (labium mediale)
    Medial lip (labium mediale)
    Lateral lip (labium laterale)
    Lateral lip (labium laterale)

    On the lateral lip is the gluteal tuberosity (tuberositas glutea), to which the gluteus maximus muscle is attached.

    Gluteal tuberosity (tuberositas glutea)
    Gluteal tuberosity (tuberositas glutea)

    The medial lip continues as a pectineal line (linea pectinea) to which the pectineus is attached.

    Pectineal line (linea pectinea)
    Pectineal line (linea pectinea)

    In the area of the distal epiphysis, both lips are the boundaries of the popliteal surface (facies poplitea).

    Popliteal surface (facies poplitea)
    Popliteal surface (facies poplitea)

    In the area of the distal epiphysis, the bone is somewhat thickened to form two condyles: the medial condyle (con- dylus medialis)

    Medial condyle (condylus medialis)
    Medial condyle (condylus medialis)

    and the lateral condyle (condylus lateralis).

    Lateral condyle (condylus lateralis)
    Lateral condyle (condylus lateralis)

    At the back, there is an intercondylar fossa (fossa intercondylaris) between them.

    Intercondylar fossa (fossa intercondylaris)
    Intercondylar fossa (fossa intercondylaris)

    In front, the two condyles merge to form the patellar surface (facies patellaris).

    Patellar surface (facies patellaris)
    Patellar surface (facies patellaris)

    There is also a small intercondylar line (linea intercondylaris) between the condyles.

    Intercondylar line (linea intercondylaris)
    Intercondylar line (linea intercondylaris)

    Above the condyles are the corresponding epicondyli:

  • lateral epicondyle (epicondylus lateralis)

    Lateral epicondyle (epicondylus lateralis)
    Lateral epicondyle (epicondylus lateralis)
  • medial epicondyle (epicondylus medialis)

    Medial epicondyle (epicondylus medialis)
    Medial epicondyle (epicondylus medialis)

    The respective supracondylar lines depart from the epicondyli upward:

  • lateral supracondylar line (linea supracondylaris lateralis)

    Lateral supracondylar line (linea supracondylaris lateralis)
    Lateral supracondylar line (linea supracondylaris lateralis)
  • medial supracondylar line (linea supracondylaris medialis)

Medial supracondylar line (linea supracondylaris medialis)
Medial supracondylar line (linea supracondylaris medialis)
Dictionary

Femur (thigh bone)

femur
femur
body of femur
corpus femoris/diaphysis
proximal epiphysis
epiphysis proximalis
distal epiphysis
epiphysis distalis
anterior facet
facies anterior
posterior facet
facies posterior
head of femur
caput femoris
fovea for ligament of head of femur
fovea capitis ossis femoris
neck of femur
collum femoris
greater trochanter
trochanter major
lesser trochanter
trochanter minor
trochanteric fossa
fossa trochanterica
intertrochanteric line
linea intertrochanterica
intertrochanteric crest
crista intertrochanterica
linea aspera
linea aspera
medial lip
labium mediale
lateral lip
labium laterale
gluteal tuberosity
tuberositas glutea
pectineal line
linea pectinea
popliteal surface
facies poplitea
medial condyle
condylus medialis
lateral condyle
condylus lateralis
intercondylar foosa
fossa intercondylaris
patellar surface
facies patellaris
intercondylar line
linea intercondylaris
lateral epicondyle
epicondylus lateralis
medial epicondyle
epicondylus medialis
lateral supracondylar line
linea supracondylaris lateralis
medial supracondylar line
linea supracondylaris medialis
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