Hip bone: Ilium

Hip bone #1: Ilium. Anatomy & FunctionKey facts about the anatomy of the ilium
~ 3 min

The pelvic girdle (cingulum membri inferioris) consists of:

  • sacrum (os sacrum)

  • hip bone (os coxae)

Sacrum (os sacrum)
Sacrum (os sacrum)
Hip bone (os coxae)
Hip bone (os coxae)

The hip bone is formed by three fused bones:

  • ilium (os ilium)

    Ilium (os ilium)
    Ilium (os ilium)
    • ischium (os ischii)

      Ischium (os ischii)
      Ischium (os ischii)
    • pubis (os pubis)

      Pubis (os pubis)
      Pubis (os pubis)

    These bones are connected by cartilage during childhood and only fuse together completely at the age of 13-17 years.

    The fusion point is the acetabulum (acetabulum), containing the lunate surface (facies lunata) for the femoral head (these bones are involved in the formation of the hip joint).

    The acetabulum has an acetabular notch (incisura acetabuli).

    Acetabulum (acetabulum)
    Acetabulum (acetabulum)
    Lunate surface (facies lunata)
    Lunate surface (facies lunata)

    The bottom of the acetabulum is called the acetabular fossa (fossa acetabuli).

    Acetabular notch (incisura acetabuli)
    Acetabular notch (incisura acetabuli)
    Acetabular fossa (fossa acetabuli)
    Acetabular fossa (fossa acetabuli)

    Moreover, the fossa is bounded by the acetabular margin (limbus acetabuli).

    Acetabular margin (limbus acetabuli)
    Acetabular margin (limbus acetabuli)

    Let us examine the structure of the ilium. It has two large parts:

    • body (corpus ossis ilii)

      Body (corpus ossis ilii)
      Body (corpus ossis ilii)
    • ala / wing (ala ossis ilii)

      Ala / wing (ala ossis ilii)
      Ala / wing (ala ossis ilii)

      The ala has two surfaces:

    • gluteal surface (facies glutea), which is located at the back

    • iliac fossa (fossa iliaca), which lies in front, slightly recessed

    • sacropelvic surface (facies sacropelvica)

      Iliac fossa (fossa iliaca)
      Iliac fossa (fossa iliaca)
      Sacropelvic surface (facies sacropelvica)
      Sacropelvic surface (facies sacropelvica)

      The superior border of the wing is thickened and is called the iliac crest (crista iliaca).

      Iliac crest (crista iliaca)
      Iliac crest (crista iliaca)

      There are three lines on the crest, to which the abdominal muscles are attached:

    • inner lip (labium internum)

      Inner lip (labium internum)
      Inner lip (labium internum)
    • intermediate zone (linea intermedia)

      Intermediate zone (linea intermedia)
      Intermediate zone (linea intermedia)
    • outer lip (labium externum)

      Outer lip (labium externum)
      Outer lip (labium externum)

      On the border of the front and middle third of the iliac crest lies the tuberbulum of the iliac crest (tuberculum iliacum).

      Tuberculum of the iliac crest (tuberculum iliacum)
      Tuberculum of the iliac crest (tuberculum iliacum)

      In the front, the iliac crest passes into the anterior superior iliac spine (spina iliaca anterior superior), and in the back, into the posterior superior iliac spine (spina iliaca posterior superior).

      Anterior superior iliac spine (spina iliaca anterior superior)
      Anterior superior iliac spine (spina iliaca anterior superior)
      Posterior superior iliac spine (spina iliaca posterior superior)
      Posterior superior iliac spine (spina iliaca posterior superior)

      Under those spines are the same inferior spines — anterior inferior iliac spine (spina iliaca anterior inferior) and the posterior inferior iliac spine (spina iliaca posterior inferior).

      Anterior inferior iliac spine (spina iliaca anterior inferior)
      Anterior inferior iliac spine (spina iliaca anterior inferior)
      Posterior inferior iliac spine (spina iliaca posterior inferior)
      Posterior inferior iliac spine (spina iliaca posterior inferior)

      There are three roughened lines on the external surface of the wing of the ilium, to which the following gluteal muscles are attached:

    • anterior gluteal line (linea glutea anterior)

      Anterior gluteal line (linea glutea anterior)
      Anterior gluteal line (linea glutea anterior)
    • posterior gluteal line (linea glutea posterior)

      Posterior gluteal line (linea glutea posterior)
      Posterior gluteal line (linea glutea posterior)
    • inferior gluteal line (linea glutea inferior)

    Inferior gluteal line (linea glutea inferior)
    Inferior gluteal line (linea glutea inferior)

    There is an arcuate line (linea arcuata) in the lower part of the iliac fossa, which adjoins the auricular surface (facies auricularis) in front. This surface together with the sacral surface forms the sacro-iliac joint.

    Arcuate line (linea arcuata)
    Arcuate line (linea arcuata)
    Auricular surface (facies auricularis)
    Auricular surface (facies auricularis)

    In addition, the arcuate line passes into the iliopubic eminence (eminentia iliopubica), where the ilium fuses with the pubis.

    Above the auricular surface is the iliac tuberosity (tuberositas iliaca).

    Iliopubic eminence (eminentia iliopubica)
    Iliopubic eminence (eminentia iliopubica)
    Iliac tuberosity (tuberositas iliaca)
    Iliac tuberosity (tuberositas iliaca)
    Dictionary

    Ilium

    pelvic girdle
    cingulum membri inferioris
    sacrum
    os sacrum
    hip bone
    os coxae
    ilium
    os ilium
    ischium
    os ischii
    pubis
    os pubis
    acetabulum
    acetabulum
    lunate surface
    facies lunata
    acetabular notch
    incisura acetabuli
    acetabular fossa
    fossa acetabuli
    acetabular margin
    limbus acetabuli
    body of ilium
    corpus ossis ilii
    ala of ilium
    ala ossis ilii
    gluteal surface
    facies glutea
    iliac fossa
    fossa iliaca
    sacropelvic surface
    facies sacropelvica
    iliac crest
    crista iliaca
    inner lip
    labium internum
    intermediate zone
    linea intermedia
    outer lip
    labium externum
    tuberculum of iliac crest
    tuberculum iliacum
    anterior superior iliac spine
    spina iliaca anterior superior
    posterior superioriliac spine
    spina iliaca posterior superior
    anterior inferior iliac spine
    spina iliaca anterior inferior
    posterior inferior iliac spine
    spina iliaca posterior inferior
    anterior gluteal line
    linea glutea anterior
    posterior gluteal line
    linea glutea posterior
    inferior gluteal line
    linea glutea inferior
    arcuate line
    linea arcuata
    auricular surface
    facies auricularis
    iliopubic eminence
    eminentia iliopubica
    iliac tuberosity
    tuberositas iliaca
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