Palatine bone

Palatine bone: Anatomy & FunctionKey facts about the anatomy of the palatine bone. Hard palate
~ 3 min

Let us examine the structure of the palatine bone (os palatinum). It is involved in the formation of numerous cavities and fossae.

Palatine bone (os palatinum)
Palatine bone (os palatinum)

The bone consists of two plates:

  • horizontal plate (lamina horizontalis)

    Horizontal plate (lamina horizontalis)
    Horizontal plate (lamina horizontalis)
  • perpendicular plate (lamina perpendicularis)

Perpendicular plate (lamina perpendicularis)
Perpendicular plate (lamina perpendicularis)

This bone has three processes:

  • pyramidal process (processus pyramidalis)

    Pyramidal process (processus pyramidalis)
    Pyramidal process (processus pyramidalis)
  • orbital process (processus orbitalis)

    Orbital process (processus orbitalis)
    Orbital process (processus orbitalis)
  • sphenoidal process (processus sphenoidalis)

    Sphenoidal process (processus sphenoidalis)
    Sphenoidal process (processus sphenoidalis)

    The horizontal plate has two surfaces:

  • nasal (superior) surface (facies nasalis), it is even

    Nasal (superior) surface (facies nasalis)
    Nasal (superior) surface (facies nasalis)
  • palatine (inferior) surface (facies palatina), it is roughened

    Palatine (inferior) surface (facies palatina)
    Palatine (inferior) surface (facies palatina)

    The horizontal plate is connected to the palatine process of the maxilla by its frontal border. And the medial border fuses with the horizontal plate of the opposite side. The medial border also contains the nasal crest (crista nasalis).

    Nasal crest (crista nasalis)
    Nasal crest (crista nasalis)

    The posterior borders of the horizontal plates form the posterior nasal spine (spina nasalis posterior).

    Posterior nasal spine (spina nasalis posterior)
    Posterior nasal spine (spina nasalis posterior)

    As a result, the two palatine processes of the maxilla and the two horizontal plates of the palatine bones form the bony palate (palatum osseum).

    Bony palate (palatum osseum)
    Bony palate (palatum osseum)

    The perpendicular plate has two surfaces:

  • nasal (medial) surface (facies nasalis)

    Nasal (medial) surface (facies nasalis)
    Nasal (medial) surface (facies nasalis)
  • maxillary (lateral) surface (facies maxillaris)

    Maxillary (lateral) surface (facies maxillaris)
    Maxillary (lateral) surface (facies maxillaris)

    On the lateral surface of the perpendicular plate runs the greater palatine groove (sulcus palatinus major). It is a component of the greater palatine canal (canalis palatinus major). This canal ends with the greater palatine foramen (foramen palatinum majus).

    Greater palatine groove (sulcus palatinus major)
    Greater palatine groove (sulcus palatinus major)
    Greater palatine foramen (foramen palatinum majus)
    Greater palatine foramen (foramen palatinum majus)

    There are two crests on the medial surface of the perpendicular plate:

  • ethmoidal crest (crista ethmoidalis), which is connected to the middle nasal concha of the ethmoidal bone

    Ethmoidal crest (crista ethmoidalis)
    Ethmoidal crest (crista ethmoidalis)
  • conchal crest (crista conchalis), which is connected to the inferior nasal concha

Conchal crest (crista conchalis)
Conchal crest (crista conchalis)

The pyramidal process extends posteriorly from the inferior part of the bone.

Through this process pass the lesser palatine canals (canales palatini minores), which open into the lesser palatine foramina (foramina palatina minora).

The orbital process extends upward from the bone and is involved in the formation of the floor of the orbit.

The sphenoidal process runs medially and backwards.

These two processes are the boundaries of the sphenopalatine notch (incisura sphenopalatina).

Sphenopalatine notch (incisura sphenopalatina)
Sphenopalatine notch (incisura sphenopalatina)

Together with the body of the sphenoid, this notch forms the sphenopalatine foramen (foramen sphenopalatinum).

Sphenopalatine foramen (foramen sphenopalatinum)
Sphenopalatine foramen (foramen sphenopalatinum)
Dictionary

Palatine bone

palatine bone
os palatinum
horizontal plate
lamina horizontalis
perpendicular plate
lamina perpendicularis
pyramidal process
processus pyramidalis
orbital process
processus orbitalis
sphenoidal process
processus sphenoidalis
nasal surface
facies nasalis
palatine surface
facies palatina
nasal crest
crista nasalis
posterior nasal spine
spina nasalis posterior
bony palate
palatum osseum
maxillary surface
facies maxillaris
greater palatine groove
sulcus palatinus major
greater palatine canal
canalis palatinus major
greater palatine foramen
foramen palatinum majus
ethmoidal crest
crista ethmoidalis
conchal crest
crista conchalis
lesser palatine canals
canales palatini minores
lesser palatine foramina
foramina palatina minora
sphenopalatine notch
incisura sphenopalatina
sphenopalatine foramen
foramen sphenopalatinum
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