Tibia

Tibia: Anatomy & FunctionKey facts about the anatomy of the tibia, also known as the shinbone
~ 3 min

Let us examine the structure of the tibia (tibia). It is one of the leg bones and is located medially.

Tibia
Tibia

It consists of three parts:

  • body (corpus tibiae/diaphysis)

Body (corpus tibiae/diaphysis)
Body (corpus tibiae/diaphysis)
  • proximal epiphysis (epiphysis proximalis)

    Proximal epiphysis (epiphysis proximalis)
    Proximal epiphysis (epiphysis proximalis)
  • distal epiphysis (epiphysis distalis)

    Distal epiphysis (epiphysis distalis)
    Distal epiphysis (epiphysis distalis)

    Three surfaces are also distinguished (best seen in the region of the body of the bone):

  • posterior surface (facies posterior)

    Posterior surface (facies posterior)
    Posterior surface (facies posterior)
  • medial surface (facies medialis)

    Medial surface (facies medialis)
    Medial surface (facies medialis)
  • lateral surface (facies lateralis)

    Lateral surface (facies lateralis)
    Lateral surface (facies lateralis)

    The tibia has three borders (which are best seen in the body area):

  • anterior border (margo anterior)

    Anterior border (margo anterior)
    Anterior border (margo anterior)
  • medial border (margo medialis)

    Medial border (margo medialis)
    Medial border (margo medialis)
  • interosseous border (margo interosseus)

Interosseous border (margo interosseus)
Interosseous border (margo interosseus)

There are two condyles on the proximal epiphysis — the medial condyle (condylus medialis)

Medial condyle (condylus medialis)
Medial condyle (condylus medialis)

and the lateral condyle (condylus lateralis).

Lateral condyle (condylus lateralis).
Lateral condyle (condylus lateralis).

They have an upper articular surface (facies articularis superior) that is used to connect to the condyles of the femur.

Upper articular surface (facies articularis superior)
Upper articular surface (facies articularis superior)

There is an intercondylar eminence (eminentia intercondylaris) between the condyles.

Intercondylar eminence (eminentia intercondylaris)
Intercondylar eminence (eminentia intercondylaris)

Within this eminence lies a lateral intercondylar tubercle (tuberculum intercondylare laterale)

Lateral intercondylar tubercle (tuberculum intercondylare laterale)
Lateral intercondylar tubercle (tuberculum intercondylare laterale)

and a medial intercondylar tubercle (tuberculum intercondylare mediale).

Medial intercondylar tubercle (tuberculum intercondylare mediale).
Medial intercondylar tubercle (tuberculum intercondylare mediale).

The anterior intercondylar area (area intercondylaris anterior) and the posterior intercondylar area (area intercondylaris posterior) can be distinguished in front of the tubercles. These areas are the attachment sites of the cruciate ligaments.

Anterior intercondylar area (area intercondylaris anterior)
Anterior intercondylar area (area intercondylaris anterior)
Posterior intercondylar area (area intercondylaris posterior)
Posterior intercondylar area (area intercondylaris posterior)

The lateral condyle has a fibular articular facet (facies articularis fibularis) for articulation with the fibula.

Fibular articular facet (facies articularis fibularis)
Fibular articular facet (facies articularis fibularis)

On the anterior border of the body of the tibia is the tibial tuberosity (tuberositas tibiae), to which the quadriceps is attached.

Tibial tuberosity (tuberositas tibiae)
Tibial tuberosity (tuberositas tibiae)

And on the posterior surface of the bone there is the soleal line (linea musculi solei).

Soleal line (linea musculi solei).
Soleal line (linea musculi solei).

On the distal epiphysis we can distinguish the fibular notch (incisura fibularis), which articulates with the fibula.

Fibular notch (incisura fibularis)
Fibular notch (incisura fibularis)

The medial malleolus (malleolus medialis) descends from the epiphysis.

Medial malleolus (malleolus medialis)
Medial malleolus (malleolus medialis)

It has an articular surface (facies articularis malleoli), which below passes into the inferior articular surface (facies articularis inferior) of the tibia. And both of these surfaces are involved in the formation of the ankle joint.

Inferior articular surface (facies articularis inferior)
Inferior articular surface (facies articularis inferior)

Behind the malleolus lies the malleolar sulcus (sulcus malleolaris).

Malleolar sulcus (sulcus malleolaris).
Malleolar sulcus (sulcus malleolaris).
Dictionary

Tibia (shinbone)

tibia
tibia
body of tibia
corpus tibiae/diaphysis
proximal epiphysis
epiphysis proximalis
distal epiphysis
epiphysis distalis
posterior surface
facies posterior
medial surface
facies medialis
lateral surface
facies lateralis
anterior border
margo anterior
medial border
margo medialis
interosseous border
margo interosseus
medial condyle
condylus medialis
lateral condyle
condylus lateralis
superior articular surface
facies articularis superior
intercondylar eminence
eminentia intercondylaris
lateral intercondylartubercle
tuberculum intercondylare laterale
medial intercondylartubercle
tuberculum intercondylare mediale
anterior intercondylar area
area intercondylaris anterior
posterior intercondylararea
area intercondylarisposterior
fibular articular facet
facies articularis fibularis
tibial tuberosity
tuberositas tibiae
soleal line
linea musculi solei
fibular notch
incisura fibularis
medial malleolus
malleolus medialis
articular facet
facies articularis malleoli
inferior articular surface
facies articularis inferior
malleolar groove
sulcus malleolaris
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