Anatomy of the external nose

Anatomy of the external noseAnatomical features of the external nose. Functions of the external nose
~ 3 min

The nose is the initial part of the airways of the respiratory system and consists of two main parts: the external nose and the nasal cavity.

The external nose (nasus externus) consists of organs covered with skin, which are a specific feature of both each human and the human as a species. It resembles a triangular pyramid, the back plane of which is adjacent to the face

Each person’s external nose has its individual anatomical features, which determine its social function. It allows to successfully identify the faces of familiar people.

External nose (nasus externus)
External nose (nasus externus)

From the point of view of topography, this organ is located on the face in the nasal region (regio nasalis), which is delimited by the following structures:

  • Superiorly: glabella (glabella)
Glabella (glabella)
Glabella (glabella)

This is the area located between the medial parts of the superciliary arches (arcus superciliaris);

Superciliary arch (arcus superciliaris)
Superciliary arch (arcus superciliaris)
  • Inferiorly: the horizontal line drawn through the base of the nasal septum;
  • Laterally: the nasobuccal and nasolabial folds.

Anatomically, the external nose is divided into several parts, each of which has its own features.

1. The superior narrow part of the nose, located between the orbits, is called the root of the nose (radix nasi).

Root of the nose (radix nasi)
Root of the nose (radix nasi)
Root of the nose (radix nasi)
Root of the nose (radix nasi)

2. Posteriorly, it continues into the dorsum of the nose (dorsum nasi), which gradually passes into the apex of the nose (apex nasi).

Dorsum of the nose (dorsum nasi)
Dorsum of the nose (dorsum nasi)
Dorsum of the nose (dorsum nasi)
Dorsum of the nose (dorsum nasi)
Apex of the nose (apex nasi)
Apex of the nose (apex nasi)
Apex of the nose (apex nasi)
Apex of the nose (apex nasi)

3. On the sides of it are the alae of the nose (alae nasi). They are the inferolateral sections, which in turn are the borders of the nostrils of the nose.

Alae of the nose (alae nasi)
Alae of the nose (alae nasi)
Alae of the nose (alae nasi)
Alae of the nose (alae nasi)

4. Nostrils (nares) are openings in the inferior part of the nose through which air enters the nasal cavities. They are separated from each other by the membranous part of the nasal septum.

Nostrils (nares)
Nostrils (nares)
Nostrils (nares)
Nostrils (nares)

The bony skeleton of the external nose consists of paired bones forming the lateral walls, which include nasal bones, frontal processes of the maxilla, and the anterior part of the bony nasal septum formed by unpaired bones, which include the anterior part of the vomer and the anterior part of the inferior part of the perpendicular plate of the ethmoid bone.

1. Nasal bone (os nasale)

Nasal bone (os nasale)
Nasal bone (os nasale)
Nasal bone (os nasale)
Nasal bone (os nasale)
Nasal bone (os nasale)
Nasal bone (os nasale)

2. Maxilla (maxilla)

Maxilla (maxilla)
Maxilla (maxilla)
Maxilla (maxilla)
Maxilla (maxilla)
Maxilla (maxilla)
Maxilla (maxilla)

3. Vomer (vomer)

Vomer (vomer)
Vomer (vomer)
Vomer (vomer)
Vomer (vomer)

4. Perpendicular plate of the ethmoid bone (lamina perpendicularis ossis ethmoidalis)

Perpendicular plate of the ethmoid bone (lamina perpendicularis ossis ethmoidalis)
Perpendicular plate of the ethmoid bone (lamina perpendicularis ossis ethmoidalis)
Perpendicular plate of the ethmoid bone (lamina perpendicularis ossis ethmoidalis)
Perpendicular plate of the ethmoid bone (lamina perpendicularis ossis ethmoidalis)
Perpendicular plate of the ethmoid bone (lamina perpendicularis ossis ethmoidalis)
Perpendicular plate of the ethmoid bone (lamina perpendicularis ossis ethmoidalis)

The nasal bones, the frontal processes of the maxilla, and the maxilla itself form the piriform aperture (apertura piriformis).

Piriform aperture (apertura piriformis)
Piriform aperture (apertura piriformis)

Cartilaginous formations forming two symmetrical and mobile halves adhere to its edges.

They include:

1. Lateral nasal cartilage (cartilago lateralis nasi), which is a large, paired cartilage located directly under the nasal bone. It forms the dorsum of the nose together with the nasal bones.

Lateral nasal cartilage (cartilago lateralis nasi)
Lateral nasal cartilage (cartilago lateralis nasi)

2. Major alar cartilage (cartilago alaris major), which is a paired cartilage located under the lateral cartilage. It forms the nostrils and consists of the lateral and medial crura (crus lateralis et medialis).

Major alar cartilage (cartilago alaris major)
Major alar cartilage (cartilago alaris major)
Major alar cartilage (cartilago alaris major)
Major alar cartilage (cartilago alaris major)
Lateral crus (crus lateralis)
Lateral crus (crus lateralis)
Medial crus (crus lateralis)
Medial crus (crus lateralis)

3. Minor alar cartilage (cartilago alaris minor), which lies behind the major alar cartilage. Usually there are three on each side. These structures form the alae of the nose.

Minor alar cartilage (cartilago alaris minor)
Minor alar cartilage (cartilago alaris minor)
Minor alar cartilage (cartilago alaris minor)
Minor alar cartilage (cartilago alaris minor)

4. Septal nasal cartilage (cartilago septi nasi), which is a large unpaired cartilage that forms a large anterior part of the nasal septum.

Septal nasal cartilage (cartilago septi nasi)
Septal nasal cartilage (cartilago septi nasi)
Septal nasal cartilage (cartilago septi nasi)
Septal nasal cartilage (cartilago septi nasi)
Septal nasal cartilage (cartilago septi nasi)
Septal nasal cartilage (cartilago septi nasi)

5. Accessory nasal cartilages (cartilagines accessoriae nasi), which are not always present. They lie between the lateral cartilage and the major alar cartilage of the nose.

Accessory nasal cartilages (cartilagines accessoriae nasi)
Accessory nasal cartilages (cartilagines accessoriae nasi)

The cartilages are not tightly connected to each other and there are areas of adipose tissue in the spaces between them.

The nose is covered with skin rich in sebaceous glands, with subcutaneous fat. Under them lie the muscles of the nose, which belong to the facial muscles.

1. The nasalis muscle (m. nasalis), which consists of two parts. Its transverse part compresses the cartilaginous part of the nose, and the alar part lowers the ala of the nose.

Nasalis muscle (m.nasalis)
Nasalis muscle (m.nasalis)
Nasalis muscle (m.nasalis) - alar part
Nasalis muscle (m.nasalis) - alar part
Nasalis muscle (m.nasalis) - transverse part
Nasalis muscle (m.nasalis) - transverse part

2. Levator labii superioris alaeque nasi muscle (m. levator labii superioris alaque nasi)

Levator labii superioris alaeque nasi muscle (m. levator labii superioris alaque nasi)
Levator labii superioris alaeque nasi muscle (m. levator labii superioris alaque nasi)
Levator labii superioris alaeque nasi muscle (m. levator labii superioris alaque nasi)
Levator labii superioris alaeque nasi muscle (m. levator labii superioris alaque nasi)

3. Procerus muscle (m. procerus), which forms transverse folds over the bridge of the nose

Procerus muscle (m. procerus)
Procerus muscle (m. procerus)

4. Depressor septi nasi muscle (m. depressor septi nasi), which lowers the cartilaginous part of the nasal septum.

Depressor septi nasi muscle (m. depressor septi nasi)
Depressor septi nasi muscle (m. depressor septi nasi)
Dictionary

Anatomy of the external nose

Respiratory system
systema respiratorium
Nose
nasus
Nasal region
regio nasalis
Nasal bone
os nasale
Maxilla
maxilla
Nasalis muscle
m.nasalis
Levator labii superioris alaeque nasi muscle
m.levator labii superioris alaeque nasi
Procerus muscle
m.procerus
Depressor septi nasi muscle
m. depressor septi nasi
External nose
nasus externus
Root of the nose
radix nasi
Dorsum of the nose
dorsum nasi
Apex of the nose
apex nasi
Alae of the nose
alae nasi
Nostrils
nares
Lateral nasal cartilage
cartilago lateralis nasi
Major alar cartilage
cartilago alaris major
Minor alar cartilage
cartilago alaris minor
Septal nasal cartilage
cartilago septi nasi
Accessory nasal cartilages
cartilagines accessoriae nasi
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