Anatomy of the pleura

Anatomy of the pleuraAnatomical features of the pleura. Functions of the pleura. Blood supply and innervation of the pleura
~ 3 min

The pleura is a serous coat covering the lungs.

Visceral pleura (pleura visceralis)
Visceral pleura (pleura visceralis)
Parietal pleura (pleura parietalis)
Parietal pleura (pleura parietalis)

It has two layers or two layers. The visceral layer (pleura visceralis pulmonalis) fuses tightly with the parenchyma of the lung and completely repeats its boundaries.

Visceral layer (pleura visceralis)
Visceral layer (pleura visceralis)

The parietal layer (pleura parietalis) lines the walls of the thoracic cavity from the inside and tightly fuses with the pectoral fascia and the periosteum of the ribs.

Parietal layer (pleura parietalis)
Parietal layer (pleura parietalis)

Between these sheaths, there is the closed pleural cavity (cavitas pleuralis). It contains up to 20 mL of serous fluid, which serves as a lubricant that softens the friction of the sheaths against each other.

Pleural cavity (cavitas pleuralis)
Pleural cavity (cavitas pleuralis)

The pleural sheaths are quite thin, they consist of a small amount of connective tissue, and the surfaces facing each other are lined with a layer of epithelial cells called mesothelium.

In the area of the root of the lung, both pleural sheaths are connected, forming the pulmonary ligament (lig. pulmonale).

Pulmonary
Pulmonary
Pulmonary ligament (lig. pulmonale) - Right
Pulmonary ligament  (lig. pulmonale) - Right

The parietal pleura has the following parts or surfaces:

The costal pleura (pleura costalis)

Costal pleura (pleura costalis)
Costal pleura (pleura costalis)
Costal pleura (pleura costalis)
Costal pleura (pleura costalis)

The diaphragmatic pleura (pleura diaphragmatica)

Diaphragmatic pleura
(pleura diaphragmatica)
Diaphragmatic pleura<br />
 (pleura diaphragmatica)
Diaphragmatic pleura (pleura diaphragmatica)
Diaphragmatic pleura (pleura diaphragmatica)

mediastinal pleura (pleura mediastinalis)

Mediastinal pleura (pleura mediastinalis)
Mediastinal pleura (pleura mediastinalis)

It fuses with the pericardium and forms the dome of the pleura (cupula pleurae), which is projected 1.5-2 cm above the clavicle. The subclavian artery and vein adhere to the dome.

Pleural dome (cupula pleurae)
Pleural dome (cupula pleurae)

The inferior border of the parietal pleura is located one rib below the corresponding border of the lung (the borders of the lungs are listed in the corresponding note)

The remaining borders of the pleura are indicated in the image.

Anatomical lineRightLeft
Anterior median lineNear the edge of the VI rib , it passes into the inferior borderRounding the heart, from the level of cartilage of the IV rib, deviates to the left to the parasternal line. At the cartilage of the VI rib, the anterior border of the left pleura passes into the inferior one
Midclavicular lineCrosses rib VIIForms the сardiac notch
Anterior axillary lineRib VIIIRib VIII
Midaxillary lineRib IXRib IX
Posterior axillary lineRib XRib X
Scapular lineRib XIRib XI
Paravertebral line (paraspinal line)At the level of the neck of the rib XII inferior border passes into the posterior borderAt the level of the neck of the rib XII inferior border passes into the posterior border

There are several recesses or sinuses in the pleural cavity, which are formed at the places of transition of one part of the parietal pleura to another:

The right costodiaphragmatic recess (recessus costodiaphragmaticus dexter)

The left costodiaphragmatic recess (recessus costodiaphragmaticus sinister)

Costodiaphragmatic recess (left and right) (recessus costodiaphragmaticus sinister)
Costodiaphragmatic recess (left and right) (recessus costodiaphragmaticus sinister)

The costomediastinal recess (recessus costomediastinalis)

Costomediastinal recess (recessus costomediastinalis)
Costomediastinal recess (recessus costomediastinalis)

The phrenicomediastinal recess (recessus phrenicomediastinalis)

In diseases of the pleura, the recesses are filled with inflammatory contents or commissures.

Blood supply

In humans, the pleura has a dual blood supply and receives blood from both the bronchial and pulmonary arteries.

Venous drainage

Bronchial veins are tributaries of pulmonary veins, azygos, and semi-azygos veins.

Lymph drainage

Bronchopulmonary, inferior, and superior tracheobronchial lymph nodes.

Innervation

The pleura is innervated by the vagus, intercostal and phrenic nerves.

Dictionary

Anatomy of the pleura

Pleura
pleura
Visceral pleura
pleura visceralis
Costal pleura
pleura costalis
Mediastinal pleura
pleura mediastinalis
Diaphragmatic pleura
pleura diaphragmatica
Parietal sheath
pleura parietalis
Pulmonary ligament
lig. pulmonale
Pleural cavity
cavum pleurae
Dome of the pleura
cupula pleurae
Phrenicomediastinal recess
recessus phrenicomediastinalis
Costodiaphragmatic recess
recessus costodiaphragmaticus sinister
Costodiaphragmatic recess
recessus costodiaphragmaticus dexter
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