Anatomy of the ductus deferens and spermatic cord.

Anatomy of the ductus deferens and spermatic cord.Anatomical features of the ductus deferens and spermatic cord. Functions of the ductus deferens and spermatic cord. Blood supply and innervation of the ductus deferens and spermatic cord
~ 3 min

Ductus deferens

The ductus deferens / vas deferens (ductus deferens) is a continuation of the duct of the epididymis (ductus epididymidis). Its length averages 40-55 cm.

Ductus deferens (ductus deferens)
Ductus deferens (ductus deferens)
Ductus deferens (ductus deferens)
Ductus deferens (ductus deferens)
Ductus deferens (ductus deferens)
Ductus deferens (ductus deferens)

It has the following parts:

  • Testicular or scrotal part (pars scrotalis)
  • Funicular part, which is part of the spermatic cord (pars funicularis)
  • Inguinal part, which is located in the inguinal canal (pars inguinalis)
  • Pelvic part, which reaches the prostate (pars pelvica)

Топография

Part of the ductusTesticular partFunicular partInguinal partPelvic part
LocationIn scrotumAs part of the spermatic cord, in the scrotumAs part of the spermatic cord in the inguinal canalLesser pelvis
HolotopyIt is projected into the right and left inguinal areas of the anterior abdominal wallSame as the funicular part
SyntopySuperior to testis and epididymisPosterior to testicular
vein and artery, lymphatic vessels, testicular membranes, posterior artery of the vas deferens and veins
Same as the funicular partIt leaves the deep inguinal ring under the parietal layer of the peritoneum, crosses the external iliac vessels, goes back and down, where it is located between
the wall of the bladder and the ureter, passes to the posterior wall of the bladder (where it forms an ampulla), which is located between the posterior surface of the bladder in front, seminal vesicles laterally and the ampulla
of the rectum from behind
Relation to peritoneummesoperitoneally

Terminal part of the ductus deferens, there is a widening called ampulla (ampulla ductus deferentis)

Ampulla of the ductus deferens (ampulla ductus deferentis)
Ampulla of the ductus deferens (ampulla ductus deferentis)
Ampulla of the ductus deferens (ampulla ductus deferentis)
Ampulla of the ductus deferens (ampulla ductus deferentis)

This is where the accumulation and storage of spermatozoa occurs until the moment of ejaculation.

The ampulla merges with the duct of the seminal vesicle (ductus excretorius), forming the ejaculatory duct (ductus ejaculatorius), which penetrates the central zone of the prostate and opens on the seminal colliculus in the prostatic urethra.

Duct of the seminal vesicle (ductus excretorius)
Duct of the seminal vesicle (ductus excretorius)
Ejaculatory duct (ductus ejaculatorius)
Ejaculatory duct (ductus ejaculatorius)
Ejaculatory duct (ductus ejaculatorius)
Ejaculatory duct (ductus ejaculatorius)

The wall of the ductus deferens consists of three layers.

The mucosa (tunica muscosa), which is the multi-row prismatic epithelium with microvilli, which forms longitudinal folds.

Mucosa (tunica mucosa)
Mucosa (tunica mucosa)
Mucosa (tunica mucosa)
Mucosa (tunica mucosa)

The muscular layer (tunica muscularis), which is in turn formed by three layers: the internal longitudinal layer, the middle circular layer, and the external longitudinal layer.

Muscular layer (tunica muscularis)
Muscular layer (tunica muscularis)

The adventitia (tunica adventitia), which is the external layer.

Adventitia (tunica adventitia)
Adventitia (tunica adventitia)

Blood supply

Arterial blood enters the ductus deferens from the artery of the ductus deferens, the middle rectal and inferior urogenital arteries (from the internal iliac artery).

Venous drainage

Venous blood drains into the vesicular venous plexus, and then into the internal iliac vein.

Lymph drainage

Lymph from the ductus deferens drains into the internal iliac lymph nodes.

Innervation

Innervation is carried out by the plexus of the ductus deferens, which is formed by branches from the abdominal aortic and inferior hypogastric plexuses, as well as pelvic splanchnic nerves.

Spermatic cord

Let’s consider the anatomy of the spermatic cord (funiculus spermaticus)

Spermatic cord (funiculus spermaticus)
Spermatic cord (funiculus spermaticus)
Spermatic cord (funiculus spermaticus)
Spermatic cord (funiculus spermaticus)
Spermatic cord (funiculus spermaticus)
Spermatic cord (funiculus spermaticus)

It is a complex of structures that runs from the deep inguinal ring to the superior end of the testis. Its length is 15-20 cm.

The spermatic cord includes several structures:

1. Ductus deferens (ductus deferens)

Ductus deferens (ductus deferens)
Ductus deferens (ductus deferens)
Ductus deferens (ductus deferens)
Ductus deferens (ductus deferens)
Ductus deferens (ductus deferens)
Ductus deferens (ductus deferens)
Ductus deferens (ductus deferens)
Ductus deferens (ductus deferens)

2. Testicular artery (a. testicularis)

Testicular artery (a. testicularis)
Testicular artery (a. testicularis)
Testicular artery (a. testicularis)
Testicular artery (a. testicularis)
Testicular artery (a. testicularis)
Testicular artery (a. testicularis)

3. Artery of the ductus deferens (a. ductus deferentis)

Artery of the ductus deferens (a. ductus deferentis)
Artery of the ductus deferens (a. ductus deferentis)
Artery of the ductus deferens (a. ductus deferentis)
Artery of the ductus deferens (a. ductus deferentis)
Artery of the ductus deferens (a. ductus deferentis)
Artery of the ductus deferens (a. ductus deferentis)

4. Cremasteric artery and vein (a. cremasterica et v. cremasterica)

5. Pampiniform venous plexus (plexus pampiniformis)

6. Lymphatic vessels of the testis and epididymis

Pampiniform venous plexus (plexus pampiniformis)
Pampiniform venous plexus (plexus pampiniformis)
Pampiniform venous plexus (plexus pampiniformis)
Pampiniform venous plexus (plexus pampiniformis)
Pampiniform venous plexus (plexus pampiniformis)
Pampiniform venous plexus  (plexus pampiniformis)

7. Genital branch of the genitofemoral nerve (r. genitalis n. genitofemoralis) and the sympathetic nerves of the testis

Genital branch of the genitofemoral nerve (r. genitalis n. genitofemoralis)
Genital branch of the genitofemoral nerve (r. genitalis n. genitofemoralis)

8. Remainder of the vaginal process of the peritoneum and appendix of the paradidymis (paradidymis)

The spermatic cord has several layers:

1. The internal spermatic fascia (fascia spermatica interna), which continues from the transversalis fascia of the abdomen.

Internal spermatic fascia (fascia spermatica interna)
Internal spermatic fascia (fascia spermatica interna)
Internal spermatic fascia (fascia spermatica interna)
Internal spermatic fascia (fascia spermatica interna)
Internal spermatic fascia (fascia spermatica interna)
Internal spermatic fascia (fascia spermatica interna)

2. The cremaster (m. cremaster). This muscle is a continuation of the fibers of the internal obliqueand transverse abdominal muscles. It pulls the testis up.

Cremaster (m. cremaster)
Cremaster (m. cremaster)
Cremaster (m. cremaster)
Cremaster (m. cremaster)

3. The cremasteric fascia (fascia cremasterica). It arises from the fascia of the external oblique abdominal muscle.

Cremasteric fascia (fascia cremasterica)
Cremasteric fascia (fascia cremasterica)
Cremasteric fascia (fascia cremasterica)
Cremasteric fascia (fascia cremasterica)

4. The external spermatic fascia (fascia spermatica externa). It is a continuation of the superficial abdominal fascia. It arises from the border of the superficial inguinal ring and covers the cremaster.

External spermatic fascia (fascia spermatica externa)
External spermatic fascia (fascia spermatica externa)
External spermatic fascia (fascia spermatica externa)
External spermatic fascia (fascia spermatica externa)
External spermatic fascia (fascia spermatica externa)
External spermatic fascia (fascia spermatica externa)

The spermatic cord is formed during the descent of the testis (descensus testis) from the abdominal cavity into the scrotum. This occurs during embryonic development. In the embryo, the testes are located on the posterior abdominal wall at the level of the two superior lumbar vertebrae. At the inferior end of the testes, there is a condensation of mesenchyme, or the gubernaculum of the testis (gubernaculum testis), which consists of muscles and fibrous fibers.

At this time, a so-called closed process is formed in the peritoneum, which goes through the anterior abdominal wall into the scrotum and along the way collects the coats from all layers of the abdominal wall. The testis descends after the process even before the birth of the fetus at the 9th month. After that this process closes.

Non-descent of the testis into the scrotum is called cryptorchidism. In this case, the testis may remain in the abdominal cavity or in the inguinal canal. This condition requires surgical treatment.

Dictionary

Anatomy of the ductus deferens and spermatic cord

Ductus deferens
ductus deferens
Outer fibrous capsule
tunica adventitia
Muddle muscle layer
tunica muscularis
Internal mucous membrane
tunica mucosa
Vascular bundle of the testis
vasa testiculares
Spermatic cord
funiculus spermaticus
Ampulla of the ductus deferens
ampulla ductus deferentis
Duct of the seminal vesicle
ductus excretorius
Ejaculatory duct
ductus ejaculatorius
Artery of the ductus deferens
a. ductus deferentis
Vein of the ductus deferens
v. ductus deferentis
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