In this note we will consider the structure of the prostate (prostate).
It belongs to the so-called accessory reproductive glands of the male reproductive system.
The prostate produces a secretion that stimulates the motility of the sperm cells and allows the sperm to remain in a liquid state. This is necessary for the successful fertilization of the oocyte. This gland also acts as an involuntary sphincter of the urethra, making urination impossible during ejaculation.
The prostate is located in the pelvic cavity and resembles a chestnut in its shape.
The urethra (urethra) and ejaculatory ducts (ductus ejaculatorius) pass through the organ.
Each such duct is formed by the fusion of the ductus deferens (ductus deferens)
and the excretory duct (ductus excretorius).
The prostate has the following parts:
1. The base (basis prostatae), which adheres to the urinary bladder
2. The apex (apex prostatae), which goes inferiorly to the urogenital diaphragm
3. The anterior surface (facies anterior), which is located behind the pubic symphysis and is separated from it by loose fiber
4. The posterior surface (facies posterior) of the prostate gland, on which the seminal vesicles and ampullae of the ductus deferentes are located. It adheres to the wall of the rectum.
There is a small depression on the anterior surface of the prostate, which divides the gland into the right lobe (lobus dexter) and the left lobe (lobus sinister).
There is an isthmus of the prostate gland (isthmus prostatae) between the ejaculatory ducts posteriorly and the urethra anteriorly.
With inflammation of the gland, as well as other pathologies, the isthmus can increase in volume and narrow the urethra, which leads to pain and discomfort during urination. It is also called the middle lobe of the prostate (lobus medius prostatae).
On the internal surface of the isthmus, from the side of the urethra, there is the seminal colliculus (colliculus seminalis).
At its top there is a narrow slit, no more than 1 mm deep. It ends blindly on the surface of the prostate and is called the prostatic utricle (utriculus prostaticus).
On the flanks of the utricle are the openings of the left and right ejaculatory ducts, and next to the seminal colliculus there are prostatic ducts (ductuli prostatici).
Externally, the prostate is covered with a capsule (capsula prostatica).
Septa separating the prostate into cells extend inside from this capsule. These cells have different shapes and sizes. Each cell contains from 20 to 50 glands, as well as muscle fibers. Thus, there are the glandular parenchyma (parenchyma) and the muscular substance (substantia muscularis) in the prostate gland.
Prostatic glands have a tubuloalveolar structure, their excretory ducts (ductuli prostatici) open into the prostatic urethra on the flanks of the seminal colliculus.
Arterial blood enters the prostate through the pudendal, inferior vesical and middle rectal arteries from the system of the internal iliac artery.
The venous blood drains into the prostatic venous plexus, from which it drains into the internal iliac veins.
The lymph drains into the lymph nodes of the anterior parts of the pelvic cavity.
The prostate is innervated by the nerves from the inferior hypogastric plexus.
Structure of the prostate
- Base of the prostate
- basis prostatae
- Apex of the prostate
- apex prostatae
- Anterior surface
- facies anterior
- Posterior surface
- facies posterior
- Right lobe
- lobus dexter
- Left lobe
- lobus sinister
- Isthmus of the prostate
- isthmus prostatae
- Middle lobe of the prostate
- lobus medius prostatae
- Seminal colliculus
- colliculus seminalis
- Utricle of the prostate
- utriculus prostaticus
- Prostatic ducts
- ductuli prostatici
- Capsule of the prostate
- capsula prostatica
- Glandular parenchyma
- parenchyma glandularae
- Muscular substance
- substantia muscularis
- Prostatic ducts
- ductuli prostatici
- Median rectal arteries
- aa. rectales mediae
- Inferior vesical arteries
- aa. vesicales inferior
- Prostatic nervous plexus
- plexus venosus prostaticus