Urinary System: Overview

Urinary System: OverviewFunctions of the urinary system. Kidneys and urinary tract.
~ 7 min

The urogenital system includes the urinary organs (organa urinaria) and the genitals (organa genitalia).

They are closely related anatomically and functionally.

Urinary organs

Let’s start with the urinary system. It performs three main functions.

  1. Elimination of metabolic products from body fluids
  2. Release of these waste products into the environment
  3. Regulation of the volume and concentration of dissolved substances in the blood.

This system includes the following organs:

1. Organs of excretion

  • The kidneys (ren or nephros), which are paired organs that excrete urine.
Right kidney (ren dexter)
Right kidney (ren dexter)
Left kidney (ren sinister)
Left kidney (ren sinister)

2. Organs forming the urinary tract

  • Minor calices (calyces renales minores), which collect urine from the renal papillae and flow into one of the major calices
Minor calices (calyces renales minores)
Minor calices (calyces renales minores)
Minor calices (calyces renales minores)
Minor calices (calyces renales minores)
  • Major calices (calyces renales majores), which form a renal pelvis, usually in the amount of two
Major calices (calyces renales majores)
Major calices (calyces renales majores)
Major calices (calyces renales majores)
Major calices (calyces renales majores)
  • The renal pelvis (pelvis renalis), which collects urine from major calices and passes into the ureter below the hilum of the kidney.
Renal pelvis (pelvis renalis)
Renal pelvis (pelvis renalis)
Renal pelvis (pelvis renalis)
Renal pelvis (pelvis renalis)
  • Ureters (ureter), which are paired, tubular organs extending from the renal pelvis and following the peritoneum into the lesser pelvis to the bottom of the urinary bladder.
Left ureter (ureter sinister)
Left ureter (ureter sinister)
Left ureter (ureter sinister)
Left ureter (ureter sinister)
  • The urinary bladder (vesica urinaria), which is a reservoir for the accumulation of urine. The latter is periodically excreted through the urethra.
Urinary bladder - female (vesica urinaria)
Urinary bladder - female (vesica urinaria)
Urinary bladder -female (vesica urinaria)
Urinary bladder -female (vesica urinaria)
Urinary bladder - male (vesica urinaria)
Urinary bladder - male (vesica urinaria)
  • The urethra (urethra), which is a tube connecting the excretory ducts in men or opening into a single common space in women.
Female urethra (urethra feminina)
Female urethra (urethra feminina)
Male urethra (urethra masculina)
Male urethra (urethra masculina)

Genitalia

Let’s briefly consider the male and female genitalia.

The genital system of men and women differs significantly in structure, but at the stage of the embryo, the anlage of these organs is the same in both sexes. During the development of the embryo, the formation of male organs occurs, while the development of female rudiments stops, or vice versa, depending on gender.

Male genitalia

Male genitalia (organa genitalia masculina) are divided into external and internal.

The external genitals include:

  • The penis (penis)
Penis (penis)
Penis (penis)
  • The male urethra (urethra masculina)
Male urethra (urethra masculina)
Male urethra (urethra masculina)
  • The scrotum (scrotum)
Scrotum (scrotum)
Scrotum (scrotum)

The internal genitals include the following:

  • Testis (testis)
Testis (testis)
Testis (testis)
Testis (testis)
Testis (testis)
  • Epididymidis (epididymis)
Epididymidis (epididymis)
Epididymidis (epididymis)
Epididymidis (epididymis)
Epididymidis (epididymis)
  • Ductus deferens (ductus deferens)
Ductus deferens (ductus deferens)
Ductus deferens (ductus deferens)
Ductus deferens (ductus deferens)
Ductus deferens (ductus deferens)

And accessory sex glands:

  • Seminal vesicle (vesicula seminalis)
Seminal vesicle (vesicula seminalis)
Seminal vesicle (vesicula seminalis)
Seminal vesicle (vesicula seminalis)
Seminal vesicle (vesicula seminalis)
  • The prostate (prostate)
Prostate (prostata)
Prostate (prostata)
Prostate (prostata)
Prostate (prostata)
Prostate (prostata)
Prostate (prostata)
  • Bulbourethral gland (glandula bulbourethralis)
Bulbourethral gland (glandula bulbourethralis)
Bulbourethral gland (glandula bulbourethralis)
Bulbourethral gland (glandula bulbourethralis)
Bulbourethral gland  (glandula bulbourethralis)

The male genital system has the following functions:

  • Generative: generation of male germ cells called spermatozoa.
  • Endocrine: synthesis of male sex hormones.
  • Hormonal regulation of reproductive function.
  • Ejaculatory: delivery of seminal fluid to a female genital tract

Female genitalia

Female genitalia (organa genitalia feminina) are also divided into internal and external based on their localization

The internal genitals include:

1. Ovaries (ovaria)

Ovary (ovarium)
Ovary (ovarium)
Ovary (ovarium)
Ovary (ovarium)

2. The uterus (uterus)

Uterus (uterus)
Uterus (uterus)

3. Uterine tubes (tubae uterinae)

Uterine tube (tuba uterina)
Uterine tube (tuba uterina)
Uterine tube (tuba uterina)
Uterine tube (tuba uterina)

4. The vagina (vagina)

Vagina (vagina)
Vagina (vagina)
Vagina (vagina)
Vagina (vagina)

The external genitals include:

1. The mons pubis (mons pubis)

Mons pubis (mons pubis)
Mons pubis (mons pubis)

2. Labia majora (labia majora pudendi)

Labia majora (labia majora pudendi)
Labia majora (labia majora pudendi)
Labia majora (labia majora pudendi)
Labia majora (labia majora pudendi)

3. Labia minora (labia minora pudendi)

Labia minora (labia minora pudendi)
Labia minora (labia minora pudendi)
Labia minora (labia minora pudendi)
Labia minora (labia minora pudendi)

4. Greater vestibular glands (glandulae vestibulares majores)

Greater vestibular glands (glandulae vestibulares majores)
Greater vestibular glands (glandulae vestibulares majores)

5. Lesser vestibular glands (glandulae vestibulares minores)

6. Bulb of the vestibule (bulbus vestibuli)

Bulb of the vestibule (bulbus vestibuli)
Bulb of the vestibule (bulbus vestibuli)

7. The clitoris (clitoris)

Clitoris (clitoris)
Clitoris (clitoris)
Clitoris (clitoris)
Clitoris (clitoris)

8. The hymen (hymen)

Hymen (hymen)
Hymen (hymen)

9. The mammary gland (mamma)

The female genital system has the following functions:

  • Generative: generation of female germ cells called oocytes.
  • Endocrine: synthesis of female sex hormones.
  • Hormonal regulation of reproductive function.
  • Childbearing.

The detailed structure of each of the organs of the urogenital system is analyzed in the corresponding notes.

Dictionary

Urinary System: Overview

Urogenital system
systema urogenitale
Urogenital apparatus
apparatus urogenitalis
Urinary organs
organa urinaria
Genitals
organa genitalia
Kidney
ren
Ureter
ureter
Urinary bladder
vesica urinaria
Urethra
urethra
Penis
penis
Male urethra
urethra masculina
Scrotum
scrotum
Testis
testis
Epididymis
epididymis
Ductus deferens
ductus deferens
Seminal vesicle
vesicula seminalis
Prostate
prostata
Bulbourethral gland
glandula bulbourethralis
Female genitalia
organa genitalia feminina
Ovary
ovarium
Uterus
uterus
Uterine tube
tuba uterina
Vagina
vagina
Mons pubis
mons pubis
Labia majora
labia majora pudendi
Labia minora
labia minora pudendi
Greater vestibular glands
glandulae vestibulares majores
Lesser vestibular glands
glandulae vestibulares minores
Bulb of the vestibule
bulbus vestibuli
Clitoris
clitoris
Hymen
hymen
Mammary gland
mamma
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