Hip joint

Hip joint: Anatomy & FunctionAnatomy, functions, innervation and blood supply of the hip joint
~ 3 min

The femur is connected to the pelvic bone by the hip joint (articulatio coxae).

Hip joint (art. coxae)
Hip joint (art. coxae)

This joint is formed between the acetabular lunate articular surface (facies lunata acetabuli) and the articular surface on the head of the femur (caput femoris).

Acetabular lunate articular surface (facies lunata)
Acetabular lunate articular surface (facies lunata)
Acetabular lunate articular surface (facies lunata)
Acetabular lunate articular surface (facies lunata)
Head of the femur (caput ossis femoris)
Head of the femur (caput ossis femoris)
Head of the femur (caput ossis femoris)
Head of the femur (caput ossis femoris)

The articular capsule is attached to the pelvic bone along the edge of the acetabular labrum (labrum acetabulare), on the femur — anteriorly along the intertrochanteric line (linea intertrochanterica), from the posterior side – medially from the intertrochanteric ridge (crista intertrochanterica), and the lateral part of the neck of the femur remains outside the joint cavity.

Joint capsule (capsula articularis)
Joint capsule (capsula articularis)

According to the classification, the joint is cotyloid, multiaxial, simple, not combined, and complex.

The following range of motions is possible in the joint:

  • around the frontal axis: flexion and extension

  • around the sagittal axis: abduction and adductio

  • around the vertical axis: rotation

    When shifting from the frontal axis to the sagittal, circumduction may be carried out.

    The fixing apparatus of the joint is composed of several ligaments:

  • The iliofemoral ligament (ligamentum iliofemorale) arises from the anterior border of the anterior inferior iliac spine (crista iliaca anterior inferior), passes inferiorly and inserts into the intertrochanteric line (linea intertrochanterica).

    Iliofemoral ligament (lig. iliofemorale)
    Iliofemoral ligament (lig. iliofemorale)
    Iliofemoral ligament (lig. iliofemorale)
    Iliofemoral ligament (lig. iliofemorale)
  • The pubofemoral ligament (ligamentum pubofemorale) arises from the superior branch of the pubis and the body of the ilium. It inserts into the medial border of the intertrochanteric line of the femur.

    Pubofemoral ligament (lig. pubofemorale)
    Pubofemoral ligament (lig. pubofemorale)
  • The ischiofemoral ligament (ligamentum ischiofemorale) arises from the body of the ischium, passes almost horizontally in the external direction and inserts into the trochanteric fossa of the greater trochanter.

    Ischiofemoral ligament (ligamentum ischiofemorale)
    Ischiofemoral ligament (ligamentum ischiofemorale)
  • The zona orbicularis (zona orbicularis) is a bundle of circular fibers that cover the neck of the femur forming a loop and attach to the ilium under the anterior inferior iliac spine (crista iliaca anterior inferior).

    Zona orbicularis (zona orbicularis)
    Zona orbicularis (zona orbicularis)
    Zona orbicularis (zona orbicularis)
    Zona orbicularis (zona orbicularis)

    There are several additional structures to this joint.

  • The acetabular labrum (labrum acetabulare), which fuses with the edge of the acetabulum, deepening it. There are also two so-called intracapsular ligaments.

    Acetabular labrum (labrum acetabuli)
    Acetabular labrum (labrum acetabuli)
  • The transverse ligament of the acetabulum (ligamentum transversum acetabuli)

    Transverse ligament of the acetabulum (lig. transversum acetabuli)
    Transverse ligament of the acetabulum (lig. transversum acetabuli)
    Transverse ligament of the acetabulum (lig. transversum acetabuli)
    Transverse ligament of the acetabulum (lig. transversum acetabuli)
  • The ligament of the head of the femur (ligamentum capitis femoris)

    Ligament of the head of the femur (lig.capitis femoris)
    Ligament of the head of the femur (lig.capitis femoris)
    Ligament of the head of the femur (lig.capitis femoris)
    Ligament of the head of the femur (lig.capitis femoris)

    In addition, the additional structures of the hip joint include the acetabular fat pad (corpus adiposum acetabuli).

    The following vessels and nerves take part in the blood supply and innervation of the joint.

  • Arteries: obturator artery (arteria obturatoria), medial circumflex femoral artery (arteria circumflexa femoris medialis)

  • Veins: the blood outflows through the veins with the same name

  • Nerves: obturator nerve (nervus obturatorius), femoral nerve (nervus femoralis), sciatic nerve (nervus ischiadicus)

Dictionary

Hip joint

Hip joint
articulatio coxae
Pelvic bone
os coxae
Femur
femur
Acetabular lunate articular surface
facies lunata acetabuli
Head of the femur
caput femoris
Labrum
labrum acetabuli
Intertrochanteric line
linea intertrochanterica
Intertrochanteric crest
crista intertrochanterica
Iliofemoral ligament
ligamentum iliofemorale
Anterior inferior iliac spine
crista iliaca anterior inferior
Pubofemoral ligament
ligamentum pubofemorale
Ischiofemoral ligament
ligamentum ischiofemorale
Zona orbicularis
zona orbicularis
Transverse ligaments of the acetabulum
ligamentum transversum acetabuli
Acetabular notch
incisura acetabuli
Ligament of the head of the femur
ligamentum capitis femoris
Acetabular fat pad
corpus adiposum acetabuli
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