Foot muscles

Muscles of the footAnatomy, function, blood supply and innervation of muscles of the foot
~ 3 min

In this note, we’ll start with the borders of the lower limb:

  • Posterior border consists of the coccyx and the lateral margins of the sacrum

  • Lateral border is the iliac crest

  • Anterior border consists of the inguinal ligament and the pubic symphysis

    There are several regions within the lower limb:

  • Gluteal region(regio glutealis)

  • Femoral region (regio femoralis)

  • Knee region (regio genus)

  • Leg region(regio cruralis)

  • Ankle region (regio talocruralis)

  • Foot region (regio pedis)

Within these areas, the muscles of the lower limb are located.

These include:

  • Pelvic girdle muscles

  • Muscles of the free part of lower limb

    The muscles of the free part of the lower limb are divided into:

  • Thigh muscles

  • Leg muscles

  • Foot muscles

    The muscles of the foot are divided into dorsal and plantar. The plantar muscles, in turn, form three groups:

  • Medial plantar muscles, which consist of the muscles of the great toe

  • Central plantar muscles

  • Lateral plantar muscles, which consist of the muscles of the little toe.

The dorsal muscles of the foot include:

Extensor digitorum brevis muscle (musculus extensor digitorum brevis)

Extensor digitorum brevis muscle (musculus extensor digitorum brevis)
Extensor digitorum brevis muscle (musculus extensor digitorum brevis)
Extensor digitorum brevis muscle (musculus extensor digitorum brevis)
Extensor digitorum brevis muscle (musculus extensor digitorum brevis)

Extensor hallucis brevis muscle (musculus extensor hallucis brevis)

Extensor hallucis brevis muscle (musculus extensor hallucis brevis)
Extensor hallucis brevis muscle (musculus extensor hallucis brevis)
Extensor hallucis brevis muscle (musculus extensor hallucis brevis)
Extensor hallucis brevis muscle (musculus extensor hallucis brevis)

The medial plantar muscles include:

Abductor hallucis muscle (musculus abductor hallucis)

Abductor hallucis muscle (musculus abductor hallucis)
Abductor hallucis muscle (musculus abductor hallucis)
Abductor hallucis muscle (musculus abductor hallucis)
Abductor hallucis muscle (musculus abductor hallucis)

Adductor hallucis muscle (musculus adductor hallucis)

Adductor hallucis muscle (musculus adductor hallucis)
Adductor hallucis muscle (musculus adductor hallucis)
Adductor hallucis muscle (musculus adductor hallucis)
Adductor hallucis muscle (musculus adductor hallucis)
Adductor hallucis muscle (musculus adductor hallucis)
Adductor hallucis muscle (musculus adductor hallucis)

Flexor hallucis brevis muscle (musculus flexor hallucis brevis)

Flexor hallucis brevis muscle (musculus flexor hallucis brevis)
Flexor hallucis brevis muscle (musculus flexor hallucis brevis)

The central plantar muscles include:

Flexor digitorum brevis muscle (m. flexor digitorum brevis)

Flexor digitorum brevis muscle (m. flexor digitorum brevis)
Flexor digitorum brevis muscle (m. flexor digitorum brevis)

Quadratus plantae muscle (m. quadratus plantae)

Quadratus plantae muscle (m. quadratus plantae)
Quadratus plantae muscle (m. quadratus plantae)

Plantar interossei muscles (musculi interossei plantares)

Plantar interossei muscles (musculi interossei plantares)
Plantar interossei muscles (musculi interossei plantares)

Dorsal interossei muscles (musculi interossei dorsales)

Dorsal interossei muscles (musculi interossei dorsales)
Dorsal interossei muscles (musculi interossei dorsales)
Dorsal interossei muscles (musculi interossei dorsales)
Dorsal interossei muscles (musculi interossei dorsales)

Lumbrical muscles (musculi lumbricales)

Lumbrical muscles (musculi lumbricales)
Lumbrical muscles (musculi lumbricales)

The lateral plantar muscles include:

Abductor digiti minimi muscle (musculus abductor digiti minimi pedis)

Abductor digiti minimi muscle (musculus abductor digiti minimi pedis)
Abductor digiti minimi muscle (musculus abductor digiti minimi pedis)
Abductor digiti minimi muscle (musculus abductor digiti minimi pedis)
Abductor digiti minimi muscle (musculus abductor digiti minimi pedis)

Flexor digiti minimi muscle (musculus flexor digiti minimi)

Flexor digiti minimi muscle (musculus flexor digiti minimi)
Flexor digiti minimi muscle (musculus flexor digiti minimi)

Opponens digiti minimi muscle (musculus opponens digiti minimi)

Opponens digiti minimi muscle (musculus opponens digiti minimi)
Opponens digiti minimi muscle (musculus opponens digiti minimi)
Opponens digiti minimi muscle (musculus opponens digiti minimi)
Opponens digiti minimi muscle (musculus opponens digiti minimi)

Let’s consider each muscle in greater detail

The extensor digitorum brevis muscle
(musculus extensor digitorum brevis)

Origin: superior surface of the calcaneus

Insertion: proximal phalanx of the great toe

Function: extends the great toe

Innervation: deep fibular nerve

Blood supply: dorsal artery of the foot

Extensor digitorum brevis muscle (musculus extensor digitorum brevis)
Extensor digitorum brevis muscle (musculus extensor digitorum brevis)
Extensor digitorum brevis muscle (musculus extensor digitorum brevis)
Extensor digitorum brevis muscle (musculus extensor digitorum brevis)
The extensor hallucis brevis muscle
(musculus extensor hallucis brevis)

Origin: superior surface of the calcaneus

Insertion: proximal phalanx of the great toe

Function: extends the great toe

Innervation: deep fibular nerve

Blood supply: dorsal artery of the foot

Extensor digitorum brevis muscle (musculus extensor hallucis brevis)
Extensor digitorum brevis muscle (musculus extensor hallucis brevis)
Extensor digitorum brevis muscle (musculus extensor hallucis brevis)
Extensor digitorum brevis muscle (musculus extensor hallucis brevis)
The abductor hallucis muscle
(musculus abductor hallucis)

Origin: calcaneal tuberosity, navicular tuberosity, plantar aponeurosis

Insertion: proximal phalanx of the great toe, medial sesamoid bone of the great toe

Function: abducts the great toe in the medial direction

Innervation: medial plantar nerve

Blood supply: medial plantar artery

Adductor hallucis muscle (musculus adductor hallucis)
Adductor hallucis muscle (musculus adductor hallucis)
Adductor hallucis muscle (musculus adductor hallucis)
Adductor hallucis muscle (musculus adductor hallucis)
The adductor hallucis muscle
(musculus adductor hallucis)

Origin: The oblique head (caput obliquum) arises from the long plantar ligament, lateral
cuneiform bone, bases of the metatarsals 2-4, and cuboid bone
The transverse head (caput transversum) arises from metacarpophalangeal joints of the toes 3-5

Insertion: proximal phalanx of the great toe, lateral sesamoid bone

Function: adducts and flexes the great toe

Innervation: lateral plantar nerve

Blood supply: deep plantar arch, plantar metatarsal arteries

Adductor hallucis muscle (musculus adductor hallucis)
Adductor hallucis muscle (musculus adductor hallucis)
Adductor hallucis muscle (musculus adductor hallucis) – transverse head
Adductor hallucis muscle (musculus adductor hallucis) - transverse head
Adductor hallucis muscle (musculus adductor hallucis) – oblique head
Adductor hallucis muscle (musculus adductor hallucis) - oblique head
The flexor hallucis brevis muscle
(musculus flexor hallucis brevis)

Origin: medial cuneiform bone, long plantar ligament, cuboid bone

Insertion: proximal phalanx of the great toe

Function: flexes the great toe

Innervation: lateral plantar nerve, medial plantar nerve

Blood supply: medial plantar artery, deep plantar arterial arch

Flexor hallucis brevis muscle (musculus flexor hallucis brevis)
Flexor hallucis brevis muscle (musculus flexor hallucis brevis)
The flexor digitorum brevis muscle
(m. flexor digitorum brevis)

Origin: calcaneal tuberosity, plantar aponeurosis

Insertion: Middle phalanges of the toes 2-5 (bilaterally)

Function: flexes the toes 2-5

Innervation: medial plantar nerve

Blood supply: medial and lateral plantar arteries

Flexor digitorum brevis muscle (m. flexor digitorum brevis)
Flexor digitorum brevis muscle (m. flexor digitorum brevis)
The quadratus plantae muscle
(m. quadratus plantae)

Origin: calcaneal tuberosity

Insert: tendon of the flexor digitorum longus muscle

Function: flexes the toes 2-5

Innervation: lateral plantar nerve

Blood supply: lateral plantar artery

Quadratus plantae muscle (m. quadratus plantae)
Quadratus plantae muscle (m. quadratus plantae)
Plantar interossei muscles
(musculi interossei plantares)

Origin: medial sides of the metatarsals 3-5

Insertion: medial surface of the proximal phalanges of the toes 3, 4 and 5

Function: adduct the toes 3-5 to the toe 2 and flex their proximal phalanges

Innervation: lateral plantar nerve

Blood supply: deep plantar arch, plantar metatarsal arteries

Plantar interossei muscles (musculi interossei plantares)
Plantar interossei muscles (musculi interossei plantares)
Dorsal interossei muscles
(musculi interossei dorsales)

Origin: the surfaces of adjacent metatarsals facing each other

Insertion: base of the proximal phalanges of the toes 2-4 and the corresponding tendon of the extensor digitorum longus muscle. The first interosseous muscle inserts into the medial side of the second toe, and the other three to the lateral side of the toes 2, 3, and 4, respectively.

Function: the first interosseous muscle abducts the second toe from the median line of the foot passing along the second toe The remaining three muscles abduct the corresponding toes to the lateral side, bringing them closer to the little toe, and flex the proximal phalanges of the toes 2-4

Innervation: lateral plantar nerve

Blood supply: deep plantar arch, plantar metatarsal arteries

Dorsal interossei muscles (musculi interossei dorsales)
Dorsal interossei muscles (musculi interossei dorsales)
Dorsal interossei muscles (musculi interossei dorsales)
Dorsal interossei muscles (musculi interossei dorsales)
The lumbrical muscles
(musculi lumbricales)

Origin: tendon of the flexor digitorum longus muscle

Insertion: each lumbrical continues into the tendon, which inserts into the medial border of the proximal phalanx and weaves into the dorsal aponeurosis of the corresponding toe

Function: they flex the proximal phalanges and extend the middle and distal phalanges

Innervation: lateral and medial plantar nerves

Blood supply: medial and lateral plantar arteries

Lumbrical muscles (musculi lumbricales)
Lumbrical muscles (musculi lumbricales)
The abductor digiti minimi muscle
(musculus abductor digiti minimi pedis)

Origin: calcaneal tuberosity, plantar aponeurosis

Insertion: proximal phalanx of the little toe

Function: abducts and flexes the proximal phalanx of the little toe

Innervation: lateral plantar nerve

Blood supply: lateral plantar artery

Abductor digiti minimi muscle (musculus abductor digiti minimi pedis)
Abductor digiti minimi muscle (musculus abductor digiti minimi pedis)
Abductor digiti minimi muscle (musculus abductor digiti minimi pedis)
Abductor digiti minimi muscle (musculus abductor digiti minimi pedis)
The flexor digiti minimi muscle
(musculus flexor digiti minimi)

Origin: fifth metatarsal, long plantar ligament

Insertion: proximal phalanx of the little toe

Function: flexes the little toe

Innervation: lateral plantar nerve

Blood supply: lateral plantar artery

Flexor digiti minimi muscle (musculus flexor digiti minimi)
Flexor digiti minimi muscle (musculus flexor digiti minimi)
The opponens digiti minimi muscle
(musculus opponens digiti minimi)

Origin: base of the fifth metatarsal, long plantar ligament

Insertion: lateral border of the fifth metatarsal

Function: opposes the little toe to the great toe

Innervation: lateral plantar nerve

Blood supply: lateral plantar artery

Opponens digiti minimi muscle (musculus opponens digiti minimi)
Opponens digiti minimi muscle (musculus opponens digiti minimi)
Opponens digiti minimi muscle (musculus opponens digiti minimi)
Opponens digiti minimi muscle (musculus opponens digiti minimi)
Dictionary

Muscles of the foot

gluteal region
regio glutealis
femoral region
regio femoralis
knee region
regio genus
leg region
regio cruralis
ankle region
regio talocruralis
foot region
regio pedis
extensor digitorum brevis muscle
musculus extensor digitorum brevis
extensor hallucis brevis muscle
musculus extensor hallucis brevis
abductor hallucis muscle
musculus abductor hallucis
adductor hallucis muscle
musculus adductor hallucis
flexor hallucis brevis muscle
musculus flexor hallucis brevis
flexor digitorum brevis muscles
m. flexor digitorum brevis
quadratus plantae muscle
m. quadratus plantae
plantar interossei muscles
musculi interossei plantares
dorsal interossei muscles
musculi interossei dorsales
lumbrical muscles
musculi lumbricales
abductor digiti minimi muscle
musculus abductor digiti minimi pedis
flexor digiti minimi muscle
musculus flexor digiti minimi
opponens digiti minimi muscle
musculus opponens digiti minimi
oblique head
caput obliquum
transverse head
caput transversum
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