Forearm muscles: Anterior group

Forearm muscles: Anterior groupAnatomy, function, blood supply and innervation of the anterior group of the forearm muscles
~ 3 min

In this pdf-note, we’ll start with the borders of the upper limb:

  • The anterior border is the deltopectoral groove

  • The posterior border is the posterior deltoid groove

    Borders of the upper limb
    Borders of the upper limb
    Borders of the upper limb
    Borders of the upper limb

Within the upper limb, there is a large number of regions:

  • Deltoid region (regio deltoidea)

  • Axillary region (regio axillaris)

  • Anterior region of the arm (regio brachialis anterior)

  • Posterior region of the arm (regio brachialis posterior)

  • Anterior region of the elbow (regio cubitalis anterior)

  • Posterior region of the elbow (regio cubitalis posterior)

  • Anterior region of the forearm (regio anterobrachialis anterior)

  • Posterior region of the forearm (regio anterobrachialis posterior)

  • Anterior region of the wrist (regio carpalis anterior)

  • Posterior region of the wrist (regio carpalis posterior)

  • Palmar region of the hand (regio palmaris manus)

  • Dorsal region of the hand (regio dorsalis manus)

Regions of the upper limb
Regions of the upper limb
Regions of the upper limb
Regions of the upper limb

Within these areas, the muscles of the upper limb are located.

These include:

  • Pectoral girdle muscles

  • Muscles of the free part of the upper limb

    The muscles of the free part of the upper limb are divided into:

  • Arm muscles

  • Forearm muscles

  • Hand muscles

    There are two groups of forearm muscles: anterior and posterior.

    The anterior group consists of the hand and finger flexor muscles. They are arranged in several layers.

    Superficial layer:

  • Brachioradialis muscle (m. brachioradialis), which is sometimes described as part of a separate lateral group of forearm muscles, but this is of no principal significance

    Brachioradialis muscle (m. brachioradialis)
    Brachioradialis muscle (m. brachioradialis)
    Brachioradialis muscle (m. brachioradialis)
    Brachioradialis muscle (m. brachioradialis)
    Brachioradialis muscle (m. brachioradialis)
    Brachioradialis muscle (m. brachioradialis)
    Brachioradialis muscle
    (m. brachioradialis)

    Origin: medial supraepicondylar ridge of the humerus, lateral intermuscular septum of the arm

    Insertion: above the styloid process of the radius

    Function: flexes the upper limb at the elbow joint, supinates the hand. The hand pronates from the supination position.

    Innervation: radial nerve (C5-C8)

    Blood supply: collateral radial artery, recurrent radial artery, radial artery

  • Pronator teres muscle (m.pronator teres)

    Pronator teres muscle (m. pronator teres)
    Pronator teres muscle (m. pronator teres)
    Pronator teres muscle(m. pronator teres)
    Pronator teres muscle(m. pronator teres)
    Pronator teres muscle
    (m. pronator teres)

    Origin:

    Humeral head (caput humerale) arises from the medial epicondyle of the humerus and the medial intermuscular septum of the arm

    Ulnar head (caput ulnare) arises from the tuberosity of the ulna, coronoid process of the ulna

    Insertion: lateral surface of the body of the radius

    Function: pronation of the forearm, flexion of the upper limb at the elbow joint

    Innervation: median nerve (C5-Th1)

    Blood supply: branches of the brachial, ulnar and radial arteries

  • Flexor carpi radialis muscle (m. flexor carpi radialis)

    Flexor carpi radialis muscle (m. flexor carpi radialis)
    Flexor carpi radialis muscle (m. flexor carpi radialis)
    Flexor carpi radialis muscle (m. flexor carpi radialis)
    Flexor carpi radialis muscle (m. flexor carpi radialis)
    Flexor carpi radialis muscle (m. flexor carpi radialis)
    Flexor carpi radialis muscle (m. flexor carpi radialis)
    Flexor carpi radialis muscle
    (m. flexor carpi radialis)

    Origin: medial epicondyle of the humerus, medial intermuscular septum of the arm

    Insertion: palmar surfaces of the bases of the 2nd and 3rd metacarpals

    Function: flexes and abducts the hand, flexes the forearm

    Innervation: median nerve (C5-Th1)

    Blood supply: branches of the brachial, ulnar and radial arteries

  • Palmaris longus muscle (m. palmaris longus)

    Palmaris longus muscle (m. palmaris longus)
    Palmaris longus muscle (m. palmaris longus)
    Palmaris longus muscle (m. palmaris longus)
    Palmaris longus muscle (m. palmaris longus)
    Palmaris longus muscle
    (m. palmaris longus)

    Origin: medial epicondyle of the humerus

    Insertion: continues into the palmar aponeurosis, which attaches to the bases of the middle phalanges of the fingers 2-5 (4 tendons)

    Function: stretches the palmar aponeurosis, flexes the hand and the forearm

    Innervation: median nerve (C5-Th1)

    Blood supply: radial artery

  • Flexor carpi ulnaris muscle (m. flexor carpi ulnaris)

    Flexor carpi ulnaris muscle (m. flexor carpi ulnaris)
    Flexor carpi ulnaris muscle (m. flexor carpi ulnaris)
    Flexor carpi ulnaris muscle (m. flexor carpi ulnaris)
    Flexor carpi ulnaris muscle (m. flexor carpi ulnaris)
    Flexor carpi ulnaris muscle
    (m. flexor carpi ulnaris)

    Origin:

    Humeral head (caput humerale) arises from the medial epicondyle of the humerus and the medial intermuscular septum of the arm

    Ulnar head (caput ulnare) arises from the olecranon and the posterior border of the ulna

    Insertion: pisiform bone, hamate bone, base of the 5th metacarpal

    Function: flexes and adducts the hand

    Innervation: ulnar nerve (C7-C8)

    Blood supply: superior and inferior ulnar collateral arteries, ulnar artery

    Second layer:

  • Flexor digitorum superficialis muscle (m. flexor digitorum superficialis)

    Flexor digitorum superficialis muscle (m. flexor digitorum superficialis)
    Flexor digitorum superficialis muscle (m. flexor digitorum superficialis)
    Flexor digitorum superficialis muscle (m. flexor digitorum superficialis)
    Flexor digitorum superficialis muscle (m. flexor digitorum superficialis)
    Flexor digitorum superficialis muscle
    (m. flexor digitorum superficialis)

    Origin:

    Humero-ulnar head (caput humeroulnare) arises from the medial epicondyle of the humerus, ulnar collateral ligament, and the coronoid process of the ulna

    Radial head (caput radiale) arises from the anterior border of the radius

    Insertion: divides into four tendons that reach the bases of the middle phalanges of the fingers 2-5 and bifurcate. The resulting cruses insert into the lateral surfaces of the bases of the middle phalanges

    Function: flexes the middle phalanges of the fingers 2-5, flexes the hand, flexes the forearm

    Innervation: median nerve (C5-Th1)

    Blood supply: radial and ulnar arteries

    Third layer:

  • Flexor digitorum profundus muscle (m. flexor digitorum profundus)

    Flexor digitorum profundus muscle (m. flexor digitorum profundus)
    Flexor digitorum profundus muscle (m. flexor digitorum profundus)
    Flexor digitorum profundus muscle (m. flexor digitorum profundus)
    Flexor digitorum profundus muscle (m. flexor digitorum profundus)
    Flexor digitorum profundus muscle
    (m. flexor digitorum profundus)

    Origin: anterior surface of the ulna, interosseous membrane of the forearm

    Insertion: divides into four tendons, which insert into the bases of the distal phalanges of the fingers 2-5

    Function: flexes the distal phalanges of the fingers 2-5

    Innervation: ulnar and median nerves (C5-Th1)

    Blood supply: radial artery, ulnar artery

  • Flexor pollicis longus muscle (m. flexor pollicis longus)

    Flexor pollicis longus muscle (m. flexor pollicis longus)
    Flexor pollicis longus muscle (m. flexor pollicis longus)
    Flexor pollicis longus muscle (m. flexor pollicis longus)
    Flexor pollicis longus muscle (m. flexor pollicis longus)
    Flexor pollicis longus muscle
    (m. flexor pollicis longus)

    Origin: anterior surface of the radius, interosseous membrane of the forearm, medial epicondyle of the humerus

    Insertion: base of the distal phalanx of the thumb

    Function: flexes the distal phalanx of the thumb

    Innervation: median nerve (C5-Th1)

    Blood supply: radial artery, ulnar artery, anterior interosseous artery

    Fourth layer:

  • Pronator quadratus muscle (m. pronator quadratus)

Pronator quadratus muscle (m. pronator quadratus)
Pronator quadratus muscle (m. pronator quadratus)
Pronator quadratus muscle
(m. pronator quadratus)

Origin: inferior third of the body of the ulna

Insertion: inferior third of the body of the radius

Function: pronates the forearm and the hand

Innervation: median nerve (C5-Th1)

Blood supply: anterior interosseous artery

Dictionary

Forearm muscles

Deltoid region
regio deltoidea
Axillary region
regio axillaris
Anterior region of the arm
regio brachialis anterior
Posterior region of the arm
regio brachialis posterior
Anterior region of the elbow
regio cubitalis anterior
Posterior region of the elbow
regio cubitalis posterior
Anterior region of the forearm
regio anterobrachialis anterior
Posterior region of the forearm
regio anterobrachialis posterior
Anterior region of the wrist
regio carpalis anterior
Posterior region of the wrist
regio carpalis posterior
Palmar region of the hand
regio palmaris manus
Dorsal region of the hand
regio dorsalis manus
Brachioradialis muscle
m. brachioradialis
Pronator teres muscle
m.pronator teres
Flexor carpi radialis
m. flexor carpi radialis
Palmaris longus muscle
m. palmaris longus
Flexor carpi ulnaris muscle
m. flexor carpi ulnaris
Flexor digitorum superficialis muscle
m. flexor digitorum superficialis
Flexor digitorum profundus muscle
m. flexor digitorum profundus
Flexor pollicis longus muscle
m. flexor pollicis longus
Pronator quadratus muscle
m. pronator quadratus
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