Arm muscles

Arm muscles: Anatomy and FunctionAnatomy, function, blood supply and innervation of arm muscles
~ 3 min

In this pdf-note, we’ll start with the borders of the upper limb:

  • The anterior border is the deltopectoral groove

  • The posterior border is the posterior deltoid groove

    Borders of the upper limb
    Borders of the upper limb
    Borders of the upper limb
    Borders of the upper limb

Within the upper limb, there is a large number of regions:

  • Deltoid region (regio deltoidea)

  • Axillary region (regio axillaris)

  • Anterior region of the arm (regio brachialis anterior)

  • Posterior region of the arm (regio brachialis posterior)

  • Anterior region of the elbow (regio cubitalis anterior)

  • Posterior region of the elbow (regio cubitalis posterior)

  • Anterior region of the forearm (regio anterobrachialis anterior)

  • Posterior region of the forearm (regio anterobrachialis posterior)

  • Anterior region of the wrist (regio carpalis anterior)

  • Posterior region of the wrist (regio carpalis posterior)

  • Palmar region of the hand (regio palmaris manus)

  • Dorsal region of the hand (regio dorsalis manus)

Regions of the upper limb
Regions of the upper limb
Regions of the upper limb
Regions of the upper limb

Within these areas, the muscles of the upper limb are located.

These include:

  • Pectoral girdle muscles

  • Muscles of the free part of the upper limb

The muscles of the free part of the upper limb are divided into:

  • Arm muscles

  • Forearm muscles

  • Hand muscles

There are two groups of arm muscles: anterior and posterior. They are separated by the so-called medial and lateral intermuscular septa (septum intermusculare brachii mediale et septum intermusculare brachii laterale).

The anterior group is the flexor muscles. These include:

  • Biceps brachii muscle (m. biceps brachii)

    Biceps brachii muscle (m. biceps brachii)
    Biceps brachii muscle (m. biceps brachii)
    Biceps brachii muscle (m. biceps brachii)
    Biceps brachii muscle (m. biceps brachii)
    Long head (caput longum)
    Long head (caput longum)
    Short head (caput breve)
    Short head (caput breve)
    Biceps brachii muscle (m. biceps brachii)
    Biceps brachii muscle (m. biceps brachii)
    Biceps brachii muscle
    (m. biceps brachii)

    Origin:

    Long head (caput longum) arises from the supraglenoid tubercle of the scapula

    Short head (caput breve) arises from the coracoid process of the scapula

    Insertion: radial tuberosity (with a single tendon). Bicipital aponeurosis (aponeurosis musculi bicipitis brachii) also known as the Pirogov’s aponeurosis arises from the tendon

    Function: flexion of the upper limb at the elbow joint and partially at the shoulder joint

    Innervation: musculocutaneous nerve (C5-C8)

    Blood supply: axillary artery, brachial artery, superior and inferior ulnar collateral arteries, recurrent radial artery

  • Coracobrachialis muscles (m. coracobrachialis)

    Coracobrachialis muscles (m. coracobrachialis)
    Coracobrachialis muscles (m. coracobrachialis)
    Coracobrachialis muscles
    (m. coracobrachialis)

    Origin: coracoid process of the scapula

    Insertion: anterior and medial surface of the humerus inferiorly to the crest of the lesser tubercle

    Function: flexion and adduction of the upper limb at the shoulder joint

    Innervation: musculocutaneous nerve (C5-C8)

    Blood supply: anterior and posterior circumflex humeral arteries

  • Brachialis muscle (m. brachialis)

    Brachialis muscle (m. brachialis)
    Brachialis muscle (m. brachialis)
    Brachialis muscle (m. brachialis)
    Brachialis muscle (m. brachialis)
    Brachialis muscle (m. brachialis)
    Brachialis muscle (m. brachialis)
    Brachialis muscle
    (m. brachialis)

    Origin: inferior two thirds of the humerus distal to the deltoid tuberosity, medial and lateral intermuscular septi of the arm

    Insertion: tuberosity of the ulna, capsule of the elbow joint

    Function: flexion of the upper limb at the elbow joint

    Innervation: musculocutaneous nerve (C5-C8)

    Blood supply: superior and inferior collateral ulnar arteries, deep artery of the arm, radial recurrent artery

The posterior group is the extensor muscles. These include:

  • Triceps brachii muscle (m. triceps brachii)

    Triceps brachii muscle (m. triceps brachii) – long head
    Triceps brachii muscle (m. triceps brachii) - long head
    Triceps brachii muscle (m. triceps brachii) – lateral head
    Triceps brachii muscle (m. triceps brachii) - lateral head
    Triceps brachii muscle (m. triceps brachii) – medial head
    Triceps brachii muscle (m. triceps brachii) - medial head
    Triceps brachii muscle (m. triceps brachii) – tendon
    Triceps brachii muscle (m. triceps brachii) - tendon
    Triceps brachii muscle
    (m. triceps brachii)

    Origin:

    Long head (caput longum) arises from the infraglenoid tubercle of the scapula

    Medial head (caput mediale) arises from the posterior surface of the humerus medial to the radial grove; as well as from the medial and lateral intermuscular septi of the arm

    Lateral head (caput laterale) arises from the posteroexternal surface of the humerus; as well as from the lateral intermuscular septum

    Insertion: olecranon of the ulna (by a common tendon), capsule of the elbow joint

    Function: extension of the upper limb at the elbow joint, the long head also performs extension and adduction at the shoulder joint

    Innervation: radial nerve (C5-C8)

    Blood supply: posterior circumflex humeral artery, deep artery of the arm, superior and inferior collateral ulnar arteries

  • Anconeus muscle (m. anconeus)

Anconeus muscle (m. anconeus)
Anconeus muscle (m. anconeus)
Anconeus muscle
(m. anconeus)

Origin: lateral epicondyle of the humerus, radial collateral ligament

Insertion: olecranon of the ulna, capsule of the elbow joint

Function: extension of the upper limb at the elbow joint

Innervation: radial nerve (C5-C8)

Blood supply: recurrent interosseous artery, deep artery of the arm

Dictionary

Arm muscles

Deltoid region
regio deltoidea
Axillary region
regio axillaris
Anterior region of the arm
regio brachialis anterior
Posterior region of the arm
regio brachialis posterior
Anterior region of the elbow
regio cubitalis anterior
Posterior region of the elbow
regio cubitalis posterior
Anterior region of the forearm
regio anterobrachialis anterior
Posterior region of the forearm
regio anterobrachialis posterior
Anterior region of the wrist
regio carpalis anterior
Posterior region of the wrist
regio carpalis posterior
Palmar region of the hand
regio palmaris manus
Dorsal region of the hand
regio dorsalis manus
Medial intermuscular septum of the arm
septum intermusculare brachii mediale
Lateral intermuscular septum of the arm
septum intermusculare brachii laterale
Biceps brachii muscle
m. biceps brachii
Coracobrachialis muscle
m. coracobrachialis
Brachialis muscle
m. brachialis
Triceps brachii muscle
m. triceps brachii
Anconeus muscle
m. anconeus
Main screen of the Easy Anatomy app

Download Easy Anatomy and try it for free

  • Anatomical atlas
  • Interactive notes
  • Videos on Anatomy
  • Flashcard tests

Easy Anatomy

Learn anatomy effectively

3.2K

Функция доступна в приложении

Download the app