Forearm muscles: Posterior group

Forearm muscles: Posterior groupAnatomy, function, blood supply and innervation of the posterior group of the forearm muscles
~ 3 min

In this pdf-note, we’ll start with the borders of the upper limb:

  • The anterior border is the deltopectoral groove

  • The posterior border is the posterior deltoid groove

    Borders of the upper limb
    Borders of the upper limb
    Borders of the upper limb
    Borders of the upper limb

    Within the upper limb, there is a large number of regions:

  • Deltoid region (regio deltoidea)

  • Axillary region (regio axillaris)

  • Anterior region of the arm (regio brachialis anterior)

  • Posterior region of the arm (regio brachialis posterior)

  • Anterior region of the elbow (regio cubitalis anterior)

  • Posterior region of the elbow (regio cubitalis posterior)

  • Anterior region of the forearm (regio antero brachialis anterior)

  • Posterior region of the forearm (regio anterobrachialis posterior)

  • Anterior region of the wrist (regio carpalis anterior)

  • Posterior region of the wrist (regio carpalis posterior)

  • Palmar region of the hand (regio palmaris manus)

  • Dorsal region of the hand (regio dorsalis manus)

    Regions of the upper limb
    Regions of the upper limb
    Regions of the upper limb
    Regions of the upper limb

    Within these areas, the muscles of the upper limb are located.

    These include:

  • Pectoral girdle muscles

  • Muscles of the free part of the upper limb

    The muscles of the free part of the upper limb are divided into:

  • Arm muscles

  • Forearm muscles

  • Hand muscles

    There are two groups of forearm muscles: anterior and posterior.

    The posterior group consists of the hand and finger extensor muscles. They are arranged in two layers.

    Superficial layer:

  • Extensor carpi radialis longus muscle (m. extensor carpi radialis longus)

    Extensor carpi radialis longus muscle (m. extensor carpi radialis longus)
    Extensor carpi radialis longus muscle (m. extensor carpi radialis longus)
    Extensor carpi radialis longus muscle (m. extensor carpi radialis longus)
    Extensor carpi radialis longus muscle (m. extensor carpi radialis longus)
    Extensor carpi radialis longus muscle (m. extensor carpi radialis longus)
    Extensor carpi radialis longus muscle (m. extensor carpi radialis longus)
    Extensor carpi radialis longus muscle
    (m. extensor carpi radialis longus)

    Origin: lateral epicondyle of the humerus, lateral intermuscular septum of the arm

    Insertion: dorsal surface of the base of the 2nd metacarpal

    Function: flexes and abducts the hand

    Innervation: radial nerve (C5-C8)

    Blood supply: radial artery, radial collateral artery, radial recurrent artery

  • Extensor carpi radialis brevis muscle (m. extensor carpi radialis brevis)

    Extensor carpi radialis brevis muscle (m. extensor carpi radialis brevis)
    Extensor carpi radialis brevis muscle (m. extensor carpi radialis brevis)
    Extensor carpi radialis brevis muscle (m. extensor carpi radialis brevis)
    Extensor carpi radialis brevis muscle (m. extensor carpi radialis brevis)
    Extensor carpi radialis brevis muscle (m. extensor carpi radialis brevis)
    Extensor carpi radialis brevis muscle (m. extensor carpi radialis brevis)
    Extensor carpi radialis brevis muscle
    (m. extensor carpi radialis brevis)

    Origin: lateral epicondyle of the humerus, radial collateral ligament

    Insertion: dorsal surface of the base of the 3rd metacarpal

    Function: flexes and abducts the hand

    Innervation: radial nerve (C5-C8)

    Blood supply: radial collateral artery, radial recurrent artery

  • Extensor digitorum muscle (m. extensor digitorum)

    Extensor digitorum muscle (m. extensor digitorum)
    Extensor digitorum muscle (m. extensor digitorum)
    Extensor digitorum muscle (m. extensor digitorum)
    Extensor digitorum muscle (m. extensor digitorum)
    Extensor digitorum muscle (m. extensor digitorum)
    Extensor digitorum muscle (m. extensor digitorum)
    Extensor digitorum muscle (m. extensor digitorum)
    Extensor digitorum muscle (m. extensor digitorum)
    Extensor digitorum muscle
    (m. extensor digitorum)

    Origin: lateral epicondyle of the humerus

    Insertion: divides into 4 tendons, which insert into the dorsal surface of the fingers 2-5, forming the check ligaments. The middle bundles of this check ligament insert into the base of the middle phalanx, and the lateral bundles insert into the distal phalanx

    Function: extends the fingers 2-5 and the hand

    Innervation: radial nerve (C5-C8)

    Blood supply: posterior interosseous artery

  • Extensor digiti minimi muscle (m. extensor digiti minimi)

    Extensor digiti minimi muscle (m. extensor digiti minimi)
    Extensor digiti minimi muscle (m. extensor digiti minimi)
    Extensor digiti minimi muscle (m. extensor digiti minimi)
    Extensor digiti minimi muscle (m. extensor digiti minimi)
    Extensor digiti minimi muscle
    (m. extensor digiti minimi)

    Origin: lateral epicondyle of the humerus

    Insertion: dorsal surfaces of the bases of the middle and distal phalanges of the 5th finger

    Function: extends the little finger

    Innervation: radial nerve (C5-C8)

    Blood supply: posterior interosseous artery

  • Extensor carpi ulnaris muscle (m. extensor carpi ulnaris)

    Extensor carpi ulnaris muscle (m. extensor carpi ulnaris)
    Extensor carpi ulnaris muscle (m. extensor carpi ulnaris)
    Extensor carpi ulnaris muscle (m. extensor carpi ulnaris)
    Extensor carpi ulnaris muscle (m. extensor carpi ulnaris)
    Extensor carpi ulnaris muscle
    (m. extensor carpi ulnaris)

    Origin:

    Humeral head (caput humerale) arises from the lateral epicondyle of the humerus

    Ulnar head (caput ulnare) arises from the olecranon of the ulna

    Insertion: posterior surface of the base of the 5th metacarpal

    Function: flexes and abducts the hand

    Innervation: radial nerve (C6-C8)

    Blood supply: posterior interosseous artery

    Deep layer:

  • Supinator muscle (m. supinator)

    Supinator muscle (m.supinator)
    Supinator muscle (m.supinator)
    Supinator muscle (m.supinator)
    Supinator muscle (m.supinator)
    Supinator muscle
    (m. supinator)

    Origin: lateral epicondyle of the humerus, radial collateral ligament, anular ligament of the radius, supinator crest of the ulna

    Insertion: superior third of the radius

    Function: supinates the radius relative to the ulna (supinates the hand)

    Innervation: radial nerve (C6-C8)

    Blood supply: radial artery, recurrent radial artery, interosseous artery

  • Abductor pollicis longus muscle (m. abductor pollicis longus)

    Abductor pollicis longus muscle (m. abductor pollicis longus)
    Abductor pollicis longus muscle (m. abductor pollicis longus)
    Abductor pollicis longus muscle (m. abductor pollicis longus)
    Abductor pollicis longus muscle (m. abductor pollicis longus)
    Abductor pollicis longus muscle (m. abductor pollicis longus)
    Abductor pollicis longus muscle (m. abductor pollicis longus)
    Abductor pollicis longus muscle
    (m. abductor pollicis longus)

    Origin: posterior surface of the ulna and radius, interosseous membrane of the forearm

    Insertion: dorsal surface of the base of the 1st metacarpal

    Function: abducts the thumb

    Innervation: radial nerve (C5-C8)

    Blood supply: radial artery, posterior interosseous artery

  • Extensor pollicis brevis muscle (m. extensor pollicis brevis)

    Extensor pollicis brevis muscle (m. extensor pollicis brevis)
    Extensor pollicis brevis muscle (m. extensor pollicis brevis)
    Extensor pollicis brevis muscle (m. extensor pollicis brevis)
    Extensor pollicis brevis muscle (m. extensor pollicis brevis)
    Extensor pollicis brevis muscle (m. extensor pollicis brevis)
    Extensor pollicis brevis muscle (m. extensor pollicis brevis)
    Extensor pollicis brevis muscle
    (m. extensor pollicis brevis)

    Origin: posterior surface of the radius, interosseous membrane of the forearm

    Insertion: base of the proximal phalanx of the thumb

    Function: extends the proximal phalanx of the thumb, abducts the thumb

    Innervation: radial nerve (C5-C8)

    Blood supply: radial artery, posterior interosseous artery

  • Extensor pollicis longus muscle (m. extensor pollicis longus)

    Extensor pollicis longus muscle (m. extensor pollicis longus)
    Extensor pollicis longus muscle (m. extensor pollicis longus)
    Extensor pollicis longus muscle (m. extensor pollicis longus)
    Extensor pollicis longus muscle (m. extensor pollicis longus)
    Extensor pollicis longus muscle
    (m. extensor pollicis longus)

    Origin: posterior surface of the ulna, interosseous membrane of the forearm

    Insertion: base of the distal phalanx of the thumb

    Function: extends the thumb and the hand

    Innervation: radial nerve (C5-C8)

    Blood supply: radial artery, posterior interosseous artery

  • Extensor indicis muscle (m. extensor indicis)

Extensor indicis muscle (m. extensor indicis)
Extensor indicis muscle (m. extensor indicis)
Extensor indicis muscle (m. extensor indicis)
Extensor indicis muscle (m. extensor indicis)
Extensor indicis muscle (m. extensor indicis)
Extensor indicis muscle (m. extensor indicis)
Extensor indicis muscle
(m. extensor indicis)

Origin: posterior surface of the ulna, interosseous membrane of the forearm

Insertion: dorsal surface of the proximal phalanx of the index finger

Function: extends the index finger

Innervation: radial nerve (C5-C8)

Blood supply: anterior and posterior interosseous arteries

Dictionary

Forearm muscles

Deltoid region
regio deltoidea
Axillary region
regio axillaris
Anterior region of the arm
regio brachialis anterior
Posterior region of the arm
regio brachialis posterior
Anterior region of the elbow
regio cubitalis anterior
Posterior region of the elbow
regio cubitalis posterior
Anterior region of the forearm
regio anterobrachialis anterior
Posterior region of the forearm
regio anterobrachialis posterior
Anterior region of the wrist
regio carpalis anterior
Posterior region of the wrist
regio carpalis posterior
Palmar region of the hand
regio palmaris manus
Dorsal region of the hand
regio dorsalis manus
Extensor carpi radialis longus muscle
m. extensor carpi radialis longus
Extensor carpi radialis brevis muscle
m. extensor carpi radialis brevis
Extensor digitorum musle
m. extensor digitorum
Extensor digiti minimi muscle
m. extensor digiti minimi
Extensor carpi ulnaris muscle
m. extensor carpi ulnaris
Supinator muscle
m. supinator
Abductor pollicis longus muscle
m. abductor pollicis longus
Extensor pollicis brevis muscle
m. extensor pollicis brevis
Extensor pollicis longus muscle
m. extensor pollicis longus
Extensor indicis muscle
m. extensor indicis
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