Muscles of mastication

Muscles of mastication: Anatomy and FunctionAnatomy, function, blood supply and innervation of muscles of mastication
~ 2 min

There are the following borders of the head region:

  • Inferior border of the body of mandible

  • Temporomandibular joint

  • Mastoid process

  • Superior nuchal line

  • External occipital protuberance

Borders of the head region
Borders of the head region

There are several anatomical regions within the head:

  1. Frontal region (regio frontalis)

  2. Parietal region (regio parietalis)

  3. Occipital region (regio occipitalis)

  4. Temporal region (regio temporalis)

  5. Facial region (regio facialis)

Anatomical regions within the head
Anatomical regions within the head

The facial muscles and the masticatory muscles are the two groups of the muscles of the head.

When the facial muscles contract, they form facial gestures, which express certain emotions. This is possible since the facial muscles originate from the bones, and their other end inserts into the skin in the facial region. They are innervated by the facial nerve.

The masticatory muscles act on the temporomandibular joint, providing mastication. Just like other skeletal muscles, they originate from bones and attach to bones. They are innervated by the trigeminal nerve

Now let’s cover the masticatory muscles. These include:

  • Masseter muscle (m. masseter)

    Masseter muscle (m. masseter) – surface part
    Masseter muscle (m. masseter) - surface part
    Masseter muscle (m. masseter) – deep part
    Masseter muscle (m. masseter) - deep part
    Masseter muscle
    (m. masseter)

    Origin:

    Superficial part: zygomatic bone, anterior two-thirds of the zygomatic arch

    Deep part: posterior third of the zygomatic arch

    Insertion: masseteric tuberosity, lateral surface of the coronoid process

    Function: lifts the mandible and slightly pushes it forward

    Innervation: masseteric nerve, which is a branch of the trigeminal nerve

    Blood supply: masseteric artery, transverse facial artery

  • Temporalis muscle (m. temporalis)

    Temporalis muscle (m. temporalis)
    Temporalis muscle (m. temporalis)
    Temporalis muscle
    (m. temporalis)

    Origin: cranium bones and temporal fascia

    Insertion: coronoid process of the mandible

    Function: lifts the mandible and pulls it back

    Innervation: deep temporal nerves, which are the branches of the trigeminal nerve

    Blood supply: superficial temporal artery, anterior deep temporal artery

  • Medial pterygoid muscle (m. pterygoideus medialis)

    Medial pterygoid muscle (m. pterygoideus medialis)
    Medial pterygoid muscle (m. pterygoideus medialis)
    Medial pterygoid muscle
    (m. pterygoideus medialis)

    Origin:

    Deep head: pterygoid fossa of the sphenoid bone, pyramidal process of the palatine bone

    Superficial head: maxilla, superior to the last molar tooth

    Insertion: pterygoid tuberosity of the mandible

    Function: lifts the mandible and pushes it forward

    Innervation: medial pterygoid nerve, which is a branch of the trigeminal nerve

    Blood supply: maxillary artery, facial artery

  • Lateral pterygoid muscle (m. pterygoideus lateralis)

Lateral pterygoid muscle (m. pterygoideus lateralis)
Lateral pterygoid muscle (m. pterygoideus lateralis)
Lateral pterygoid muscle
(m. pterygoideus lateralis)

Origin:

Superior head: maxillary surface and infratemporal crest of the greater wing of the sphenoid bone

Inferior head: lateral surface of the lateral plate of the pterygoid process of the sphenoid bone

Insertion: neck of the mandible, capsule of the temporomandibular joint

Function: pushes the mandible forward and stretches the articular capsule of the temporomandibular joint

Innervation: lateral pterygoid nerve, which is a branch of the trigeminal nerve

Blood supply: maxillary artery, facial artery

Dictionary

Muscles of mastication

Frontal region
regio frontalis
Parietal region
regio parietalis
Occipital region
regio occipitalis
Temporal region
regio temporalis
Facial region
regio facialis
Masseter muscle
m. masseter
Temporalis muscle
m. temporalis
Medial pterygoid muscle
m. pterygoideus medialis
Lateral pterygoid muscle
m. pterygoideus lateralis
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