Within the chest region, several fasciae cover the muscles:
Superficial pectoral fascia (fascia superficialis pectoralis) It participates in the formation of a capsule (sleeve) for the mammary gland, and the suspensory ligaments of the mammary gland (ligg. suspensoria mammaria) divide it into lobules
The pectoral fascia (fascia pectoralis) is considered the deeper fascia.
It is formed by superficial and deep laminae, which form the sheath of the pectoralis major muscle.
The deep lamina also forms the sheath for the pectoralis minor muscles. In this region, the deep lamina is also called the clavipectoral fascia (fascia clavipectoralis).
In the region of the axillary cavity, the fasciae seem to intertwine with each other and form a suspensory ligament of the armpit (lig. suspensorium axillae).
The endothoracic fascia (fascia endothoracica) is considered the deepest, it lines the internal surface of the thoracic cage.
There are also several important topographic formations in the chest region.
The deltopectoral groove (sulcus deltoideopectoralis) is the groove between the pectoralis major muscle and the margin of the deltoid muscle. This is where the deltoid branch of the thoraco-acromial artery (ramus deltoideus a. thoracoacromialis) and cephalic vein (vena cephalica) pass
At the margin of the clavicle, this groove expands in the form of the infraclavian fossa (fossa infraclavicularis).
The intercostal space (spatium intercostale) is the space between two adjacent ribs that is filled with fatty tissue. There is an intercostal fissure within the intercostal space, in which intercostal vessels and nerves are located.
They go in the following order from top to bottom (VAN):
Vein Artery Nerve
Next, let’s learn about the triangles of the chest area:
Clavipectoral triangle (trigonum clavipectorale). This triangle has the following borders:
The superior border is the clavicle
The inferior border is the superior border of the pectoralis minor muscle
Contents: axillary artery and vein, medial bundle of the brachial plexus
Pectoral triangle (trigonum pectorale). Corresponds to the contours of the pectoralis minor muscle
Contents: lateral thoracic artery, long thoracic nerve
Subpectoral triangle (trigonum subpectorale). It is located between the lower edges of the pectoralis minor and major muscles, as well as the anterior margin of the deltoid muscle.
Contents: axillary artery and vein, subscapular artery, anterior and posterior circumflex humeral artery, median nerve, musculocutaneous nerve, and ulnar nerve.
Also, within the chest region, there are several intercellular spaces, which are filled with connective tissue and fatty tissue.
Superficial subpectoral space (spatium subpectorale superficiale) is located between the pectoral and clavipectoral fasciae.
Deep subpectoral space (spatium subpectorale profundum) is located under the clavipectoral fascia
Retromammary space (spatium retromammarium) is located between the superficial fascia of the chest and the pectoral fascia
Regional anatomy of the thorax
- Superficial pectroral fascia
- fascia superficialis pectoralis
- Suspensory ligaments of the breast
- ligg. suspensoria mammaria
- Pectoral fascia
- fascia pectoralis
- Clavipectoral fascia
- fascia clavipectoralis
- Suspensory ligament of axilla
- lig. suspensorium axillae
- Endothoracic fascia
- fascia endothoracica
- Deltopectoral groove
- sulcus deltoideopectoralis
- Infraclavicular fossa
- fossa infraclavicularis
- Intercostal space
- spatium intercostale
- Clavipectoral triangle
- trigonum clavipectorale
- Pectoral triangle
- trigonum pectorale
- Subpectoral triangle
- trigonum subpectorale
- Superficial sub-pectoral space
- spatium subpectorale superficiale
- Deep sub-pectoral space
- spatium subpectorale profundum
- Retromammary space
- spatium retromammarium