Superficial muscles of the neck

Superficial muscles of the neck: Anatomy and FunctionAnatomy, function, blood supply and innervation of superficial muscles of the neck
~ 2 min

There are the following borders of the neck region:

  • The superior border passes through the inferior border of the mandible, temporomandibular joint, mastoid process, superior nuchal line, external occipital protuberance

  • The inferior border passes through the jugular notch, clavicle, acromion of the scapula, spinous process of the C7 vertebra

Borders of the neck region
Borders of the neck region

There are several anatomical regions within the neck:

  1. Anterior cervical region (regio cervicalis anterior)

  2. Lateral cervical region (regio cervicalis lateralis)

  3. Posterior cervical region (regio cervicalis posterior)

  4. Sternocleidomastoid region (regio sternocleidomastoidea)

Anatomical regions within the neck
Anatomical regions within the neck

The muscles of the neck are located within these anatomical areas. They are divided into superficial and deep. The superficial muscles form three groups:

  • Surface group

  • Infrahyoid group

  • Suprahyoid group

    The surface group includes:

  • Platysma muscle (platysma)

    Platysma muscle (platysma)
    Platysma muscle (platysma)
    Platysma muscle (platysma)
    Platysma muscle (platysma)
    Platysma muscle (platysma)
    Platysma muscle (platysma)
    Platysma muscle
    (platysma)

    Origin: pectoral fascia in the region of the clavicle, subcutaneous tissue in the region of ribs 1-2

    Insertion: masseteric fascia + weaves into the muscles of the angle of the mouth

    Function: stretches the skin of the neck, also is classified as a facial muscle; lowers the angle of the mouth

    Innervation: cervical branch of the facial nerve

    Blood supply: transverse cervical artery, superior and inferior thyroid arteries, facial artery

  • Sternocleidomastoid muscle (m. sternocleidomastoideus)

    Sternocleidomastoid muscle (m. sternocleidomastoideus)
    Sternocleidomastoid muscle (m. sternocleidomastoideus)
    Sternocleidomastoid muscle (m. sternocleidomastoideus)
    Sternocleidomastoid muscle (m. sternocleidomastoideus)
    Sternocleidomastoid muscle (m. sternocleidomastoideus)
    Sternocleidomastoid muscle (m. sternocleidomastoideus)
    Sternocleidomastoid muscle
    (m. sternocleidomastoideus)

    Origin:

    The sternal crus arises from the manubrium of the sternum

    The clavicular crus arises from the sternal end of the clavicle

    A lesser supraclavicular fossa (fossa supraclavicularis minor) is located between the cruses

    Insertion: mamillary process of the temporal bone, lateral part of the superior nuchal line of the occipital bone

    Function: with a bilateral contraction, it throws the head back, with a unilateral contraction, it tilts the head to its own side and turns the face in the opposite direction

    Innervation: accessory nerve

    Blood supply: sternocleidomastoid branch of the superior thyroid artery, occipital artery

  • Trapezius muscle (m. trapezius)

    Trapezius muscle (m. trapezius)
    Trapezius muscle (m. trapezius)
    Trapezius muscle (m. trapezius)
    Trapezius muscle (m. trapezius)
    Trapezius muscle
    (m. trapezius)

    Origin:

    Descending part: external occipital protuberance, superior nuchal line, spinous processes of vertebrae, nuchal ligament

    Transverse part: spinous process of Th1-Th4 vertebrae

    Ascending part: spinous process of Th5-Th12 vertebrae

    Insertion:

    Descending part: external third of the clavicle

    Transverse part: acromion of the scapula, spine of the scapula

    Ascending part: spine of the scapula

    Function:

    Descending part: brings the scapula closer to the spine (superiorly and medially), helps to extend the cervical spine, helps to turn the head to the contralateral side

    Transverse part: pulls the scapula medially

    Ascending part: pulls the scapula inferiorly and medially

    Innervation:

    Motor branches: accessory nerve

    Sensory branches: cervical plexus (C3-C4)

    Blood supply: transverse artery of the neck, occipital, suprascapular, posterior intercostal arteries

    The suprahyoid group includes:

  • Digastric muscle (m. digastricus)

    Digastric muscle (m. digastricus) – anterior belly
    Digastric muscle (m. digastricus) - anterior belly
    Digastric muscle (m. digastricus) – posterior belly
    Digastric muscle (m. digastricus) - posterior belly
    Digastric muscle
    (m. digastricus)

    Origin:

    Anterior belly (venter anterior) is the digastric fossa of the mandible

    Posterior belly (venter posterior) is the mastoid notch of the temporal bone

    Both bellies are connected by an intermediate tendon

    Insertion: intermediate tendon, which inserts into the body and the greater horn of the hyoid bone

    Function: with unilateral contraction, it lifts the hyoid bone; with a fixed hyoid bone, it lowers the mandible; with bilateral contraction, it pulls the hyoid bone posteriorly and superiorly

    Innervation: digastric branch of the facial nerve (posterior belly), mylohyoid nerve (anterior belly)

    Blood supply: mental artery, occipital artery, posterior auricular artery

  • Stylohyoid muscle (m. stylohyoideus)

    Stylohyoid muscle (m. stylohyoideus)
    Stylohyoid muscle (m. stylohyoideus)
    Stylohyoid muscle
    (m. stylohyoideus)

    Origin: styloid process

    Insertion: body and the greater horn of the hyoid bone

    Function: with unilateral contraction, it lifts the hyoid bone; with bilateral contraction, it pulls the hyoid bone back and up

    Innervation: stylohyoid branch of the facial nerve

    Blood supply: facial artery, occipital artery

  • Mylohyoid muscle (m. mylohyoideus)

    Mylohyoid muscle (m. mylohyoideus)
    Mylohyoid muscle (m. mylohyoideus)
    Mylohyoid muscle (m. mylohyoideus)
    Mylohyoid muscle (m. mylohyoideus)
    Mylohyoid muscle
    (m. mylohyoideus)

    Origin: mylohyoid line of the mandible

    Insertion: body of the hyoid bone

    Function: forms the oral diaphragm, with unilateral contraction, it lifts the hyoid bone; with bilateral contraction, it pulls the hyoid bone back and up

    Innervation: mylohyoid nerve

    Blood supply: hyoid artery, mental artery

  • Geniohyoid muscle (m. geniohyoideus)

    Geniohyoid muscle (m. geniohyoideus)
    Geniohyoid muscle (m. geniohyoideus)
    Geniohyoid muscle
    (m. geniohyoideus)

    Origin: mental spine of the mandible

    Insertion: body of the hyoid bone

    Function: when the hyoid bone is fixed, it lowers the mandible; when the mandible is fixed, it lifts the hyoid bone

    Innervation: muscular branches of the cervical plexus (C1-C2)

    Blood supply: hyoid artery, mental artery

    The infrahyoid group includes:

  • Omohyoid muscle (m. omohyoideus)

    Omohyoid muscle (m. omohyoideus) – superior belly
    Omohyoid muscle (m. omohyoideus) – superior belly
    Omohyoid muscle (m. omohyoideus) – interior belly
    Omohyoid muscle (m. omohyoideus) – interior belly
    Omohyoid muscle
    (m. omohyoideus)

    Origin:

    The superior belly is the body of the hyoid bone

    The inferior belly consists of the superior border of the scapula and the transverse scapular ligament

    Insertion: both bellies are connected by an intermediate tendon

    Function: pulls the hyoid bone down and posteriorly; when the hyoid bone is fixed, it pulls the pretracheal layer of the cervical fascia

    Innervation: ansa cervicalis (C1-C2)

    Blood supply: inferior thyroid artery, transverse cervical artery

  • Sternohyoid muscle (m. sternohyoideus)

    Sternohyoid muscle (m. sternohyoideus)
    Sternohyoid muscle (m. sternohyoideus)
    Sternohyoid muscle (m. sternohyoideus)
    Sternohyoid muscle (m. sternohyoideus)
    Sternohyoid muscle
    (m. sternohyoideus)

    Origin: manubrium of the sternum, posterior sternoclavicular ligament, sternal end of the clavicle

    Insertion: body of the hyoid bone

    Function: pulls the hyoid bone down

    Innervation: ansa cervicalis (C1-C2)

    Blood supply: superior and inferior thyroid arteries

  • Sternothyroid muscle (m. sternothyroideus)

    Sternothyroid muscle (m. sternothyroideus)
    Sternothyroid muscle (m. sternothyroideus)
    Sternothyroid muscle (m. sternothyroideus)
    Sternothyroid muscle (m. sternothyroideus)
    Sternothyroid muscle
    (m. sternothyroideus)

    Origin: manubrium of the sternum, cartilage of the 1st rib

    Insertion: oblique line of the thyroid cartilage of the larynx

    Function: lowers the larynx

    Innervation: ansa cervicalis (C1-C2)

    Blood supply: inferior thyroid artery

  • Thyrohyoid muscle (m. thyrohyoideus)

Thyrohyoid muscle (m. thyrohyoideus)
Thyrohyoid muscle (m. thyrohyoideus)
Thyrohyoid muscle
(m. thyrohyoideus)

Origin: oblique line of the thyroid cartilage of the larynx

Insertion: body and the greater horn of the hyoid bone

Function: lowers the hyoid bone, with a fixed hyoid bone it lifts the larynx

Innervation: ansa cervicalis (C1-C2)

Blood supply: superior and inferior thyroid arteries

Dictionary

Superficial muscles of the neck

Anterior cervical region
regio cervicalis anterior
Lateral cervical region
regio cervicalis lateralis
Posterior cervical region
regio cervicalis posterior
Sternocleidomastoid region
regio sternocleidomastoidea
Platysma
platysma
Sternocleidomastoid muscle
m. sternocleidomastoideus
Trapezius muscle
m. trapezius
Digastric muscle
m. digastricus
Stylohyoid muscle
m. stylohyoideus
Mylohyoid muscle
m. mylohyoideus
Geniohyoid muscle
m. geniohyoideus
Omohyoid muscle
m. omohyoideus
Sternohyoid muscle
m. sternohyoideus
Sternothyroid muscle
m. sternothyroideus
Thyrohyoid muscle
m. thyrohyoideus
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